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Венера: !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Нашла такой текст правда без перевода , кто может перевести переведите, вдруг что-то правда интересное. First off, Necromantic Practice is NOT a Religion. You can be a Christian, Jew, Pagan, etc.and still practice Necromantics. (I prefer to use this term instead of the ever-tarnished "Necromancy") Death touches ALL Religions, therefore is not a religion in, and of itself. Secondly, it is NOT Black Magick,. Almost anyone who utilizes magick will confirm that `color' is non-existent. The intent of the individual is what makes it "good", or "bad". The captains of the ships, which brought the slaves to the U.S, coined the term "Black Magick". It was used to describe the traditional rituals in which the native Africans took part. In modern society, the phrase has been adopted to describe the `miraculous' acts of the followers of Magick embracing paths, such as the "left hand" (for major lack of a better term), which includes Satanism, Demonolatry, Necromantic Practitioners, etc.. Does it mean their intentions are bane? Well, one can be a Satanist, and perform magick with no ill intent; thus, the directing of this energy cannot plausibly be called "Black" or "White". Whether Necromantic Practice is considered "Magical" or not, is basically up to the person who is utilizing it. Lastly, there is a difference between Necromantic Practice, and Necrophilia. Though they are both extremely intimate, only one is sexually so. A Necromantic practitioner will NOT rape the dead. A Necrophile is in it strictly for the thrill. It is about dominance over another, and fear of rejection. A corpse can't say no. To Love Death is to forget the flesh, and concentrate on the spirit, Necrophilia is the exact opposite. To perform such acts on the dead is horrendous. Though some Necromantics do refer to themselves as "Necrophiliacs". To them, this simply means that they are attracted to the dead. yet they would not sexually act on that attraction. It is of a spiritual nature. Followers of the Necromantic path attune themselves with the Death energy to gain balance, understanding, acceptance, and Love for the soul, it's purpose, and place in the divine plan. It's not "evil", and it has nothing what so ever to do with Demons, or Satan. Again, Death touches all, not just a single belief system. For the Necormantic, the veil of humanity does not completely cover the eyes. We strive to understand that which we fear, and embrace it, with open arms. Death truly is a gentle force. The most beautiful Angel, he lifts our soul, and burdens himself with the sorrow, so that WE may feel the joy of being free from the flesh. We should never, ever be "sad" when it comes time to part. When we do, we find that it is the best thing that has ever happened to us. That is the beauty of transition. The wind may close one door, but it opens another. So take a tip from the Irish, and celebrate the passing of loved ones. Be merry, dance on their graves, sing, and drink from sunset to sunset. chances are, that is exactly what they would want you to be doing.and remember to be wary of those who claim that "real Necromancy" is bothering the dead to give you some sort of silly information that you think you NEED to know. if there is something that you really do need warning for, the dead will contact YOU. Select Cross-Cultural and Historical Personifications of Death This extensive introduction includes some of the more well known, along with some lesser known Death "incarnations", and I use that term loosely, as in many cultures, the Angel of Death can be quite an adept shapeshifter. We have tried to cull together as much information and as many examples of Death in personification as possible. I'm certain that there are many more. To include them all, we would have a page of encyclopedic proportions! Prior to The Azrael Project, if one were seeking information on the Death entity, you would literally need to research thousands of books and pour through stacks of research papers. With this project, you need look no further than here to begin your journey. One of the earliest known depictions of a personified Death was found at Catal Huyuk, a Neolithic settlement in Anatolia dating from the 7th Millennium B.C... Death takes the form represented by gigantic black birds of vulture-like appearance menacing headless human corpses. Many Stone Age cave paintings depict Death as a winged being, tall and extremely thin and pale in complexion. In these earliest renditions, Death was not given a name, simply an image, that to the people of that day, was representative of a major force or "deity". Something much larger than life that could never be appeased, no matter how many "sacrifices" were given unto It. The assignation of names and titles, and even personality, came much later as the world grew "larger" and more diverse in the eyes of man. When humankind literally separated himself from the animal kingdom and began to think about the meaning of life, while always having the recognize the inevitability of Death. We begin with Azrael, a name of Hebrew derivation. While not the earliest known appellation, it is probably the most recognized name given the Angel of Death in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic world. Literally meaning "whom God helps", Azrael remains at all times a legate of the supreme consciousness, which for the multi-cultural aim of this book, we shall refer to as the "Godsoul". From Islamic teachings, it is written that "when Michael, Gabriel and Israfel failed to provide seven handfuls of earth for the creation of Adam, the 4th angel on this mission, Azrael, succeeded, and because of this feat, he was appointed to separate body from soul". (Encyclopedia of Religion & Ethics- Hastings). It is said that Azrael keeps a scroll containing the name of every person born in the world. The time of death...is not known to Azrael. When the day of death approaches, Allah lets a leaf inscribed with the person's name drop from his throne. Azrael reads the name and within forty days must separate the soul from the body. He is often described, in the Koran, as a "divine being endowed with immense power so awesome that he had to be restrained in 70,000 chains of a thousand years journey's length each. By the Godsoul's command; it is written, Azrael spread his wings and opened his eyes and upon seeing this spectacle, the angels fainted away." It is further stated that Azrael was given "all of the powers of the heavens to enable him to master death." The Koran also recorded the following statement of a man engaging in conversation with Death: "When people lament and weep too much over the death of a person, the Angel of Death will stand at the door and say, 'what cause have you for such violent complaint? I am only the messenger of God and have done His bidding, and if you rebel against Him, I shall return often to take one of your house." Although this passage may seem overly ominous, it typifies man's personal interaction with a personified Death, particularly in the pantheon we are discussing, so heavily influenced by religious fear and the dominance of their God. Nearly all historical literature treats Death as a divine creation of the Godsoul for purposes of separating the soul from the body at the time of passing. This is well exemplified in the following excerpt, also from Moslem teachings: "When a righteous person dies, the Angel of Death comes with a host of divinity carrying sweet odors of paradise and makes the soul leave the body like a drop taken out of a bucket of water. Though, when a wicked person dies, Death comes in the company of demons, who pull the soul out as with iron spits." In Jewish literature, it is written that "Azrael appears to our spirit in a form determined by our beliefs, actions and dispositions during life. He may even manifest invisibly so that a man may die of a rose in aromatic pain...or of a rotting stench." In Islamic lore, it is said that "Azrael, the Angel of Death, is veiled before the creatures of God with a million veils and that his true immensity is vaster than the heavens, and the east and the west are between his hands like a dish on which all things have been set to balance." It is further written, "that when the soul sees Azrael, it 'falls in love', and thus is withdrawn from the body as if by a seduction." In some Jewish folklore, the Angel of Death is called Sammael (Samael), meaning the "drug of God" since it was believed that his sword was tipped with gall. In the Talmud, 'Abodah Zarah 20', Sammael is described as "altogether full of eyes. At the time of death, he (the Angel of Death) takes his stand above the place of ones head with his sword drawn and a drop of poison suspended on its tip." Often, Death is depicted as bearing some form of weapon or energy directing instrument; a knife, a sword, a scythe, a shaft of light, or a rod of fire, to name a few. Perhaps one of the more pronounced cases of Death's visitation in this example, is the tale of Joshua ben Levi, a Talmudian scholar. When time came for him to die, the Angel of Death (Sammael, in this case) appeared to him whereby Joshua demanded to be shown his place in 'paradise'. When the angel consented to this, Joshua demanded the angel's knife so that Death would not use it to frighten him on the way. This request was also granted, whereupon Joshua sprang with the weapon over the wall of paradise. Death, who by Talmudic law was not permitted to enter, caught hold of Joshua's garment; but Joshua swore that he would not come out. The Godsoul then declared that Joshua should not leave paradise unless he was absolved of his oath. The Angel of Death then demanded back his knife, and, upon Joshua's refusal, a heavenly voice rang out, "Give him back the knife because the children of men have need of it!" Mankind understands the symbolic power of weaponry. In Joshua's case, the image of the knife symbolizes power over life and death, as well as the means to inflict death at higher command. While Azrael was the most prominent name mentioned in this culture, in certain Arabic lore, Death is occasionally referred to by another name, Iblis, as in the Arabian Nights Tale, The Angel of Death and the Proud King; And Iblis came (to the proud king)...so the king bowed his head to him and he said, 'I am the Angel of Death and I purpose to take thy soul.' Replied the king, 'Have patience with me a little whilst I return to my house and take leave of my people and children...' 'By no means so,' answered the angel; 'thou shalt never return nor look on them again, for the fated term of thy life is past.' So saying, he took the soul of the king...and departed thence." Longfellow makes mention of Azrael in a poem included in Tales of a Wayside Inn, wherein a Spanish Jew tells a tale of Azrael and King Solomon. The king is entertaining a "learned man" who is a rajah. As they walk, a figure in the twilight air is gazing intently at the man. The rajah asks Solomon: "What is yon shape, that, pallid as the dead, is watching me, as if he sought to trace in the dim light the features of my face?" The king calmly tells his guest that it is Azrael, the Angel of Death. The man then asks Solomon to get him as far away from Azrael as possible. With the aid of his magic ring, the king sends him off to India. Azrael asks Solomon who the man was who left so suddenly. The king gives Azrael the name, and Azrael thanks the king for sending the man off to India, since he was on his way "to seek him there." Osiris is the Egyptian embodiment of the "Death Energy". Although not necessarily considered the "personification" of Death in particular, (as the Egyptian pantheon is divided into may higher and lower aspects) he is described in ancient texts as a "dark lord, having beautiful yet terrible dark eyes and an equally dark complexion: He is also said to have reached a height of five and a half yards! Egyptian concept of a true, anthropomorphic personification of the Death entity was best exemplified as Anubis (who is actually an "aspect" of Osiris). While Osiris is considered "God of the Dead", Anubis is the "Guardian of the Dead" whose function was to weigh the heart of the deceased against a feather to determine the soul's place in eternity. Seker, is an even older version of Egyptian Death personified, particularly in the area of ancient Memphis. He was said to be enthroned in a region of utter blackness and is depicted in the form of a mummy and called the "greatest god who was in the beginning and dwelleth in darkness." Originally, as "death gods" go, Seker and Osiris had many attributes in common, and the eventual fusion of the two was the result of the triumph of Osiris over the many "lesser" and varied Egyptian death gods. While Seker represented death as absolute and final, Osiris represented the death which was merely a temporary point of transition. Egyptian mythology is rife with Death allegory. This excerpt from the Coffin Text of the Middle Kingdom (circa 2160-1580 B.C..) vividly shows how the Egyptians personified Death very realistically: "Save me from the claws of him who takes for himself what he sees: May the glowing breath of his mouth not take me away."

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Венера: We could no doubt spend this page alone detailing the many, varied incarnations and aspects of Death in the Egyptian pantheon. However, there are far more specific books available on general Egyptian history and belief that would cover that in length. Thanatos, the Greek embodiment of Death is described as "the figure of a priest in sable garments and the twin brother of Morpheus (sleep)." The Greeks endeavored to exclude any thought of his gloomy nature by viewing him as a "gentle god, who came quietly upon the dying." Here, again, Death is personified with a secondary aspect, Charon, the ferryman who carries the souls of the dead across the Lethe, (which means 'river of forgetfulness'). It is from this culture that we get the concept of "paying the ferryman" for passage to the other side. If no payment was rendered unto him, usually the equivalent of a farthing or penny, the soul was destined to wander beside the river eternally. Hence, the practice of putting pennies on a dead man's eyes. Charon, himself, was not a part of Greek mythology until approximately the 5th Century BC., when an inscription praised him as "You who release many men from toil." He is often portrayed as a stern and formidable old man who insists that the rules of passage be respected. This is well illustrated in Bullfinch's retelling of an incident first described by Virgil: "Charon, old and squalid, but strong and vigorous...was receiving passengers of all kinds into his boat. Magnanimous heroes, boys and unmarried girls, as numerous as the leaves that fall at autumn, or the flocks that fly southward at the approach of winter. They stood pressing for a passage and longing to touch the opposite shore. But the stern ferryman took in only such as he chose, driving the rest back. Aeneas, wondering at the sight, asked the Sibyl, 'Why this discrimination?' She answered, 'Those who are taken on board the bark are the souls of those who have received due burial rites; the host of others who have remained unburied are not permitted to pass the flood, but wander a hundred years, and flit to and fro about the shore, till at last they are taken over.' Aeneas, displaying the sacred golden bough, finally persuades Charon to make an exception and allow him, one of the living, to cross into the realm of the dead in order to bury a fallen comrade and see his father. " It is from the account of this highly unusual round-trip that we have some of history's most detailed impressions of the "lower world" in which the souls of the dead are to be found. "Charon with eyes like burning coals herds them in, and with a whistling oar flails on the stragglers to his wake of souls." (from Dante's Inferno, 1300AD). Although, in classical mythology, Charon is usually imagined as a grim and solemn figure with an awesome task to perform, he has also been portrayed with humor, and even tender passion. It is interesting to note that the name Charon is also mentioned in Etruscan history as "The god of the dead" replete with an image painted in the tomb of Orca-Tarquina (5th century BC). It is highly likely that Charon was "imported" into the Greek pantheon from this contemporary region. Modern Greek folklore has transmuted the concept of Charon into a whole new personification. Death is no longer the withered ferryman, but rather the driver of the "death coach". In many parts of Greece, it is believed that, as time passed on and men became less connected to their gods (i.e., more concerned with material gains rather than spiritual pursuits) Death had to venture into the land of the living to retrieve souls. Hence, the personification of the death-coach, a black plumed, funerary coach pulled by huge black horses and driven by a faceless driver with burning eyes, who is in effect, Death Himself. Still today, in the age of motorized transport, if one were to hear the prance of hooves coming down the road, all ears are tuned in the hopes the coach doesn't stop in front of one's home. It is believed that if the death-coach stops to claim a soul, the driver would dismount and knock twice on the door signaling that someone in that house had just died. To the ancient Romans, Orcus was the god of death and was described as a "pale divinity, almost devoid of flesh and furnished with immense, black wings." His function was to carry the souls of the dead to the underworld, which they believed was literally a place beneath the earth's surface. Here, as well, Death is personified with more than one aspect. Februus, of Etruscan origin, was also an incarnation of Death in ancient Rome. He had a whole month set aside as 'the month of the dead', our equivalent of February. Death also had a third aspect, a female personification, Libitina, the Goddess of Funerals. This triumvirate of deities comprised primary Roman belief. However, there was still another, more pronounced and detailed female Roman personification of Death. Her face was seldom portrayed, nor were temples dedicated to her, or were sacrifices offered her, as they were to Orcus, her male equivalent. Today, her very name has sunk into such obscurity that it is seldom mentioned when the gods and goddesses of antiquity are reviewed. Her name was Mors, (a familiar derivation of much of our current reference to death) and she was worshipped by the ancients and often sung about by their poets. This female deity, remembered today mostly from Roman verse, was a reigning personification of Death. It was Mors, pale, wan and emaciated...whom the poets describe as "ravenous, treacherous and furious, roving about...ready to swallow up all who came her way." She was manifest as a black robed, dark winged figure who might, like an enormous bird of prey, hover above her intended victim until the moment came to seize it. In M.A. Dwight's 1864 epic, Grecian & Roman Mythology, it is noted that "Mors was not so honoured with temples and sacrifices because Death is inexorable, inaccessible to entreaties and unmoved by prayers and offerings." Death in the form of this deadly, female hunter is a striking figure to contemplate, especially when we consider that most contemporary personifications portray Death as masculine, if a gender is specified at all, and that, in fact, women much more than men, provide care and comfort to the terminally ill. Mors appears then to represent, the type of very powerful female deity who laid claim to many cultures, as well as to human imagination, before the patriarchal god became the dominant image. There is also another interesting correlation to the image of Mors. Within the often blended pantheons of ancient Etruscan and ancient Roman, there is mentioned another feminine anthropomorphism of Death; Tuchulcha (from the Etruscan) who is described as a bird-like being with snakes for hair, who's menacing stare, it is said, could kill with but a glance. In the Hindu/Tibetan pantheon, Shiva (Siva) is the penultimate archetype of Death, again, with a secondary aspect called Mahakala, who is Death personified. Shiva is referred to as "the formed", and Mahakala, "the formless" embodiment of the Death energy. This passage from Aghora, At the Left Hand of God by Robert Svoboda describes them best; "Mahakala has no limitation of any kind whatsoever, at least in the universe we know. He has no form at all, none. At least Shiva manifests a form we can concentrate on. Mahakala, being the utterly formless, which means He can assume all forms at will." Shiva is attributed as a "compassionate yet terrible divinity whose sight made even Vishnu, (the Hindu/Tibetan aspect of the great Godsoul) wince". Mahakala is said "to make everyone cry, and cries himself out of the joy of releasing imprisoned souls." Rudra, is another name found in this complex pantheon. Literally translated, it means 'the crier" or "he who makes others cry." Rudra is the ancient name for Shiva, and in texts "is so called because he makes everyone cry who comes into contact with Him because He separates them from their limited existence to which they are tightly attached." Of Rudra, it is further written, "By my magnanimity I have removed this individual from all the pains and miseries of existence, and the fellow was not even aware of my presence. Now he is truly at peace. People are fools to cry for their dead; They should cry for themselves." In Svoboda's Aghora, it states, "Everyone is afraid of dying, which explains why no one is willing to love Mahakala. Only two persons in all our scriptures have loved Mahakala, and both of them became immortal...Destruction is necessary but, unfortunately, no one is willing to face Death. Even for Rama and Krisha, who were real incarnations of God, there was one moment of shock, one tremor, when Mahakala appeared before them...The sight of Mahakala is so terrible that even God incarnate quails before Him..." There are a variety of "faces" of Death in Indian culture, dependant upon particular religious "sects" and beliefs. Kali, a feminine aspect of Death comes immediately to mind. Although, she is referred to more as "the Destroyer" or "the Devourer", no doubt she embodies the same energy as Mahakala. Kali, "The Black Mother", is portrayed rather frightfully. She is naked, dishevelled, wild-eyed and maniacal. In her hands she brandishes a blood-stained knife and a bloody human head. A necklace of skulls lies on her breast. She is often depicted, in Indian art, as having one foot on Shiva, who is lying on the ground like a corpse. Kali has many different names and faces in Indian culture.

Венера: Yama is called the "King of Death" in Buddhism, and certain Hindu pantheons. He is also referred to as judge of the dead, evaluating their activities while on earth to determine their fate after death. He is described as having "flesh of green or black, and robes of blood-red. He wears and crown and a flower in his hair and has many eyes, legs and arms. Each appendage bearing mystic implements and human skulls." (Much like the images of Kali.). Another of Yama's names is Vajra-Bhairava, which literally means "terrible lightning". Yet another name that pops up is Daikoku-ten, of Oriental Buddhist origin, and is pretty much the equivalent of Siva/Mahakala. He is called "the Great Black One". There are numerous tales from India's vast apocryphal texts of human interaction with Yama. One in particular describes "that it is difficult to prevail on Yama when he comes at the appointed hour to seek his victim on earth. However, the gentle and beautiful Savitri, wife of Satyavan, succeeded in persuading the god of death to give her back her husband...As Yama was bearing away Satyavan's soul, his wife followed obstinantly...until Yama was so moved by this fidelity and love, that he offered her fulfillment of her wish, provided she did not ask to have her husband brought back to life!" Emma-O is referred to as "the King of the Dead" in ancient Oriental Buddhism. It is said that he became Death because he was the first man to die. His description is one of a red-faced, angry looking deity with a coarse beard, attired in judges robes with a berreta bearing the sigil of a king. In his right hand, he has a tablet, the emblem of official authority. In his left hand, he holds a staff with two accusing faces on top; one called "The Seeing Eye", and the other, "The Sensitive Nose". Emma is still part of the popular pantheons of Buddhism throughout Japan and China. Secular Chinese Buddhism has another name for the Lord of Death, Yen-wang, whose job it is to decide when one's time is up. He then severs the mystical cord that connects body to soul. It is from Eastern beliefs that we get the concept of the "silver cord", that etheric "umbilical" that connects body to soul until the time of death. In the modern Japanese pantheon, the "Goddess of Death" is called Yuki-Onne, which literally means "the Snow Queen" who "chills to numbness those she takes so as to make their transition as peaceful and painless as possible." She also serves to cut the cord at life's end. Hel was labeled the "goddess of Death" in the Germanic and Scandinavian lands. She was said to dwell in "the land of shades called Niflheim". Her face was portrayed as half normal, and half the colour of the night sky (much like images of Shiva). It was said that Odin (the Germanic equal to God) "gave her power over nine worlds, so that she could determine where everyone should dwell after death." There are a lot of feminine Death personifications in this part of the world. There is also mention of Freya, leader of the mysterious Valkyries, (the airborne horsewomen of death) as being a prominent Death allegory in Norse mythology. Also, from this part of the world, we get the name Kalma, a death goddess of Finnish origins, where we also find the name Nga, "God of Death". In certain ancient Finnish folklore, Tuonela was the "Domain of Death", and is surrounded by "Death's river". The dead are carried across the waters by "Death's Maiden" at the darkest moment of night. In many Slavic and Baltic lands, Death appeared simply as a woman dressed in white who carried souls to "Vela", a world shrouded in grey mist and cold. Folklore, particularly that of the Black Forest region, is rife with "Grim Reaper" type images, and/or Death generally personified as a withered farmer with scythe in hand who doubled as Lord of the Harvest. This concept still remains with us throughout many Pagan traditions where deities are heavily tied into the seasons, and nature in general. Another, similar image is derived from ancient Celtic and Gaul; Sucellos, the "Harvester of Souls", who was described as a "mighty striker with scythe in hand". This entity was also called Silvanus in southern Gaul. We get much of the origin of our current Grim Reaper imagery from this part of the world. In certain Celtic pantheons, Death is again, given aspects. One of the more well known is the female triplicity known as The Morrigan, "the Queen of Shades". Consisting of actually three spirits, it was personified as a large, black crow or raven, much like the Roman Mors, sweeping down to catch its prey. Another, lesser known Celtic personification was Ankou, known in Brittany and rural Ireland by the sound of his creaking cart traveling the roads at night, picking up his latest victims. He need only open his cart door, or touch his intended, and life would flee. This, too, is a similar mythos, alikened to modern Greek folklore mentioned earlier, even though they were culturally, worlds apart. In certain early Welsh folklore, the name Gwyn Ab Nuud is mentioned as "god of the hunt who gathers lost souls and escorts them to the land of the dead on a white horse." Quetzalcoatl was the god of the west and of magic in ancient Central America. Depicted as a plumed serpent with two faces, one of life, and one of death. He was both creator, and destroyer. Lord of Life and Death, and the embodiment of the Death energy whose personified aspect was called Miquiztli, literally meaning "death". If we go further north, into Mexico, we find the name Mictlantecuhtli, the Aztec "God of Death" whose function was to guide the souls of the dead safely to the next world. The name Kukulcan is also briefly mentioned as a "manifest Death", but this appears to be more of a latter corruption of Quetzalcoatl. In present day Mexican folk art, the personified Death is called Santa Muerte, "Saint Death" and is depicted as a white-robed skeleton. In one hand He holds the scales of balance, and in the other, either the earth, or the more traditional scythe. During Mexico's "Day of the Dead" celebrations on November 2nd, one can find depictions of Death throughout Mexican culture, from its local shops, to churches and elaborate home altars, to candy and children's toys. Baron Samedi is Death personified in the Haitian Voudon pantheon, and is described quite vividly, as a tall, black man sporting a tail coat and top-hat. He has a long, white beard and eyeless sockets in his head. When invoked, he acknowledges by flapping his coat tails and tipping his hat. He is said to be a very educated speaker, yet his comments and mannerisms can be quite lewd. Offerings of rum are sure to get one into his good graces. Here, as well, we find that Death has other aspects; Baron Cimitere, who is literally, "Ruler of the Cemetery", and his counterpart, Baron LaCrosse, who is the "spirit of the Shadow of the Cross". These grand loa (or great spirits) are often accompanied by petra loa (demi-gods) called the Gede Loa, or "Spirits of the Cemetery". The Haitian feminine form of the Loa of Death is the pale, thin and wraithlike Madam Brigette, who serves very much the same function as Baron Samedi, but with a few more Kali-like attributes of "whirlwind-like change and balance". If we trace Voudon tradition back to its African source, we find the name Oya, whose name translates to mean "she who tears". Goddess of storms, hurricanes, radical change and Death, she is portrayed as a whirlwind who literally rips away the veil between this world and the next. Wearing grass skirts or costumes of multi-coloured rags, she is a fierce and steadfast guardian of the cemetery, particularly over the souls of women. She has also found her way into the Santeria religion where she fills a similar role as Baron Cimitere; as one who watches over the dead and guides their passage. African culture is particularly rife will archetypal Death images. The Egungun, of West Africa are a group of "spirits of Death" who appear only as cloth draped entities and are known to dance at various festival and tribal functions. Gaunab is another of the many African personifications of Death. Referred to primarily as "Chief of the Dead", his function and images are very similar to that of a counterpart found in the Congo, who is not mentioned by any specific name, but simply as "one of the sons of the great god Ngai. (This is not the only culture where Death is referred to as "the son of" someone. In Polynesia, for example, Hine-Nui-Te-Po, or "The Great Lady of Night" is mentioned as being the "mother of Death"). There are numerous, oral tribal legends telling of human interaction with Death in African culture. For instance, in Baganda legend, "Kintu, the first man, was permitted, after many trials and tests, to marry one of the daughters of heaven. God sends the pair to live on earth and gives them gifts, including a hen. He told them to hurry lest they meet Death (the bride's brother), and not to come back if they had forgotten anything. The woman forgets the hen's feed and goes back for it despite the warning, at which God, in His displeasure, grants Death's request to accompany them. Kintu appeals to God, who relents and sends another of His "sons" (called Digger) to take Death back to heaven. Silence was ordained during the pursuit as Digger chases Death who has hidden in the ground, but the cries of children break the spell of silence and Death is allowed to remain on earth and strike down all living things." There is another, very odd African story, told by folks living on the shores of Lake Kivu, which shows God trying to save men from death but giving up in exasperation. According to this tale, God made man to be immortal and kept a close watch on Death who was always trying to pick quarrels with men and provoke them to a fight which He knew He would win. One day God was away and Death killed and old woman. She was buried. But, after a few days, her grave began to heave as if she were coming back to life. Her daughter-in-law poured boiling water on the grave and beat it with a pestle saying "Die: what is dead should stay dead!" The grave was then quiet and the old woman was really dead. God returned, and seeing that the old woman was not there, asked what happened. When he was told, he said he would hunt Death down. Death fled...and met another old woman to whom he said, "Hide me and I shall reward you." She let him hide under her skirt and he entered her body. God caught them and decided that, since she was so old, it would be best to kill her and tear Death from her body and kill him as well. But Death slipped through God's fingers, and this time, persuaded a young girl to hide him in her belly. God despaired: if human beings kept on thwarting his efforts to save them, he might as well give it up as a bad job. So, he let Death do as he pleased. One of the strangest stories of all comes from the Ewe-speakers of West Africa. Yiyi the spider (a panthaic demiurge) cadged meat from Death during a famine. Death had plenty of meat because he had made a great clearing in the forest and set traps in it. In return for continual supplies, Yiyi gave Death his daughter in marriage. Death told his new wife not to go through the clearing when she went to fetch water. But, one rainy day she did and was caught in a trap. Her husband chopped her up for the larder! When Yiyi discovered what had happened, he attacked Death with a knife and ran away in terror to the village with Death in pursuit. Death had never been to the village before, and as he lay in wait for Yiyi, he amused himself by shooting at the women as they went down to the river for water. He then realized that here was game enough, and he had no need to set traps for animals. The Chippewa Indians have a unique legend about Death. It is said that once there was a great magician who came to the Chippewa nation wanting to make them immortal. He advised them to give "amicable greeting to the first stranger who would come to visit them". Unfortunately, for them, the Indians turned aside from a man carrying a basketful of rotting flesh, taking him for Death, but gave affectionate welcome to Death, Himself, in the guise of a pleasing young man. Tales like these, are as abundant as the tribes of mortals that have walked the earth. Another example, from the Aborigines of New South Wales tells how, in the beginning, the Godsoul forbade the people to go near a certain hollow tree in which bees had made their nest. The men obeyed, but the women wanted the honey. Finally, one of the women hit the tree with an axe, and out flew Death in the form of a bat which now claims all living things by touching them with its wings. There are numerous other "names" of Death and stories like these to be found. Although, as mentioned earlier, to include them all in this volume, would make it a task of encyclopedic proportions. Nearly every culture on earth, and no doubt beyond, has had its version of an anthropomorphic Death. A few others we thought merited mention, include one from Melanesia, where Death is called Marawa, the "Giver of Death" and is said to work hand in hand with Qat, "The Giver of Life". In Iranian mythology, death was closely associated with time, so that Zurvan, the deification of Time, was regarded as the god of Death. Murdad is another name that we find in the Persian pantheon. And, if we look into Zoroastrianism, we find Murdad's androgynous counterpart, Mairya. In ancient Mesopotamia, the Babylonians named the death god Uggae; but he does not figure notably in their mythology under this name. More well known was Mot, whose name, again, means death. Here, as earlier seen, he is aligned to the harvest. He was personified in a rather horrific manner, similar to that mentioned in the famous Epic of Gilgamesh, in which is written, that Enkidu, the unfortunate friend of Gilgamesh dreams of his coming death as seizure by an awful being; "He transformed me, that mine arms were covered with feathers like a bird. He looks at me and leads me to the house of darkness, to the dwelling of Irkalia; To the house from which he who enters never goes forth." Another name found in Sumerian-Babylonian mythology is Ereshkigal (Ereshigal), the Sumerian "goddess of Death and the under-world". She was known as the dark sister to Inanna, fertility queen of heaven and earth, and ruler of the "land from which there is no return". Haida, the Canadian Indians of Queen Charlotte Island have a death god duality called Ta'xet and Tia. One is god of violent death, and its counterpart, that of a peaceful passing. In Falasha lore, the Angel of Death is Surial, "the trumpeter". It is said that Moses received all his knowledge from Suriel. This "angel" is also mentioned in The Canonical Prayerbook of the Mandaeans as "Sauriel the Releaser". In Christian theology, Death is not graced with a name, but is referred to by description as an "intelligent being" in Job XXVII-22, and in Revelations VI-8, as "sitting on a pale horse and His name was Death". This is echoed in earlier, Gnostic texts, particularly The Book of Enoch; "And I looked and saw a pale horse and the one seated upon it had the name Death." In Christianity, the archangel Michael was once considered the original incarnation of the Angel of Death in earlier texts. To bring encounters such as these into a more contemporary forum, I'd be amiss not to mention one of the more publicised modern day accounts which appeared in Newsday, a well respected New York daily newspaper. The encounter experienced by a well known and respected Long Island doctor is today, a documented case history. Following, is an extraction from Dr. Julian Kirchick's partially published journal: "It was an apparition, a frightening thing that at first scared me witless! I don't know whether it was real or not, but I knew it was Death! I was sitting at my picturesque backyard pool, which was surrounded by rose bushes. I was startled by a rustling in the bushes about twenty feet away. I rose to investigate. After taking about two steps, I suddenly stopped short. There was a ghastly intruder, the face of Death! He was dressed in a monk-like robe with a large hood and large sleeves which hung low. The tissue-like skin drawn tightly against the skull...eyes which seemed absent from the hollow eye-sockets seemed to pierce my very soul. His bony hand beckoned to me in a benign gesture. 'Come to me,' he seemed to say..." Dr. Kirchick died shortly after this encounter of a illness he was unaware of at the time the experience happened

Венера: Despite enormous cultural differences, the basic countenance of Death is uniquely universal. Often described, as we have seen, as a tall, often winged, dark enshrouded (skeletal or emaciated) being surrounded either by darkness, or by a blue or purplish radiance. His "eyes" are striking, if not mesmeric "pools of black water", as described in Midrashic legend where awesome depictions of Death's appearance are rich! It is curious to note, that in many of these cultural pantheons, Mors (Death) and Amor (Love) are inextricably entwined. The Greek Thanatos and Eros are said to be nearly twins. In many cases Death has been known to appear as a handsome youth, and Love, as the withered corpse. In Hinduism, Yama (Death) and Kama (Love) are said to be in eternal union, much like Shiva and Shakti (his bride) are locked in eternal embrace to keep the universe in balance. This concept is echoed in numerous instances where a personified Death and a personified Love are present. The power of the archetypal Death entity lies not in the many names given It. These are, of course, man-made, not divinely assigned. The power of the presence of a personified Death lies in the resident and residual energies attached thereto, which have become "energized" over time with psionic vibrations of the thoughts, meditations, evocations, prayers and faith via the millions of impressions directed at, and attributed to the Spirit of Death throughout history. The collective energy of so much focused thought has literally made the formless manifest and accessible. Considering the way modern society treats D/death as something "evil" or "malevolent", it is interesting to note that in nearly every one of the preceding examples, Death remains at all times, a legate of the Divine Consciousness. Death is, in principal, the personification of a particular divine aspect of will, developed from a functional expression of the Godsoul that has evolved into a relatively independent personality with a distinct character of Its own. Dion Fortune stated an excellent observation on modern mans view of Death in her 1942 book, Through the Gates of Death; "We must get out of the way of thinking that death is the ultimate tragedy...It is only the man sunk in matter who calls the Angel of Death the great enemy. His esoteric name is the Opener of the gates of Life." That Glimmer of Life: Death, The Energy Body & Its Aura When persons are nearing death, their auras change dramatically. As a mystic and healer with many years experience, I have probably had more opportunities than most to observe the auras of people with terminal illnesses, in the weeks, days, hours and minutes prior to their death. The first auric symptoms of approaching death through illness are difficult to diagnose for what they actually are. The etheric aura just starts fading away, very gradually, as the dying person grows weaker, until it is almost undetectable. This also happens, though, during the natural course of many non-fatal illnesses. Please keep this in mind before you start telling people they are about to die. For what its worth, with these poor tools I have of words, I will try and share what I have seen with some terminally ill people during the time leading up to their deaths. This provides a good general example as the timing of the end result, death, is usually fairly predictable. The colours of the main aura begin to fade and change slowly during the few months prior to death. This continues until there is only a faint tint of colour left in it; giving it a washed-out look. The etheric aura (the thin band of pale-blue or creamy aura next to the skin) also fades rapidly during this time. It shrinks a little more each day and pales until it is almost undetectable. The natural bioenergetic recharging process slows as the energy body prepares itself for its approaching demise, and the transition of its essential animating spirit into another dimension of existence. A couple of days before death, depending on the nature of the disease of course, the etheric aura undergoes a dramatic change and begins expanding. The primary and secondary and tertiary energy centers, of the energy body, seem to open wide at this point and start pumping vast amounts of refined spiritual energy into the energy body; flooding the aura. This causes the aura to have a peculiar bright ethereal glow, but unfortunately one that can usually only be seen with clairvoyance (mind's eye vision ability, i.e., the ability to see visions) and not with normal auric sight alone. This change can also be felt by a sensitive if they have experienced it before and know what to sense for. The energies accompanying this ethereal glow usually have the effect of temporarily uplifting dying persons. It can also cause clairvoyance in varying degrees. While this variability seems affected by innate ability, they will often begin seeing into the next world, to see and hear spirits. This can be very confusing for them. Often they will hide the fact they can see and hear people they know are long dead; not wanting to appear crazy and upset their loved ones. This ethereal expansion continues until it surpasses the original size of the main aura. The colour is a beautiful, very, very pale sky-blue, shot through with millions of white and silver sparks. It also develops a peculiar cool-tingly, fizzy feeling to it. A lot of energy can be sensed in this; but not the normal vitality type of energy. Note: This does NOT mean that any person seen with a pale-blue aura, with or without sparks, is about to die; even if you happen to see this in your own aura during self-observation. There are several circumstances that can cause similar-looking temporary changes. For example, the human aura tends to expand and turn pale-blue in full sunlight; or be changed by the blue-sky above and behind the subject being observed. And keep in mind that background colours can also change auric colours. Spiritual upliftment, including mystical experience, can also have a similar temporarily effect. The colour of the aura during the death process is quite different from any normal pale-blue aura. It is also quite difficult to see this type of aura with a normal level of auric sight alone. The surrounding atmosphere generated by the expanding ethereal aura often makes people feel uncomfortable. I think this may be because it can be difficult to relate on a personal level to what is happening, i.e., the death process; especially on a spiritual energy level. The heaviness in the atmosphere around a dying person can also cause some perplexing emotions to manifest within those exposed to it. People can become emotionally drained if exposed to this for even a short length of time. In situations like this, understandably, there is also often a lot of fear and sadness permeating the atmosphere. But sensed at a higher level of perception there is also a profound emanation of love coming through dying persons; even though they may not feel this themselves. This atmosphere intensifies as the moment of death nears. As a mystic, being in the presence of a dying person is truly humbling. The source power can be incredibly strong at times. You are, basically, standing in the shadow of a greater light being cast through a briefly opened doorway, flowing from a higher level of reality; from one of the spirit worlds or heavens. Unfortunately, for all intents and purposes this is an unseen light to mortal eyes. A sensitive can feel the presence of the source in this light. It is a tangible, almost touchable energy that permeates the mystical heart center. This can make it swell and thrum with a gentle and powerful rhythm unlike any other; with a kind of spiritual energy resonance. During the few moments before death, the ethereal-cum-mystical aura surges dramatically, flooding the room for a moment with a profound cool stillness. At this moment, it can feel like time itself has stopped. This is when the unseen light is at its strongest and the doorway into the spirit world is at its widest. Phenomena will sometimes be seen at this time, often visible to the naked eye. I have my suspicions that a dying person's Kundalini raises to its highest level at this time. The time distortion comes from the rooms exposure to an abstract spiritual reality of a higher dimensional existence than the normal physical dimension we live in. The higher the dimensional level, the less the passing of time is apparent. On the highest level, time ceases and there is only The Eternal Now. Time stands utterly still. At the moment of death the released spirit of the deceased person will fly swiftly out of his or her body, sometimes helped by loved ones that are waiting. The spirit's old physical body is now biologically deceased. The unseen ethereal aura then contracts rapidly, imploding and fading away to nothing in a matter of a few seconds. This whole process is like an etheric-cum-auric bioenergetic explosion, followed by an implosion that sucks all the available energy in the room away with it; often including heat energy. At the moment of death, as a doorway cracks open into a higher reality and the spirit is drawn through it, all free energy can be drawn into it, including the emotional energy being vented by mourners. This can create an unnaturally cold feeling around any newly deceased person. After death, the atmosphere in the room carries a shocked kind of feeling -- that's the only way to really describe it. This is caused by the terrific forces that were work during the death process. You can feel this hanging in the atmosphere wherever there has been a recent death; especially if you are a sensitive. Depending on the nature of the death in question, this atmosphere generally fades away over a few days. But in an area where there has been a violent or massive loss of life, this shocked feeling can persist for months or even years.

Венера: The discarded physical body is now left with only a very weak ethereal glow around it; swiftly fading to nothing. This is barely detectable even with the strongest level of auric sight. This is residual etheric matter and not living aura. This fades away very quickly and nothing more will be seen of the living aura around the corpse. You will see only a pale outline, such as you can see around any inanimate object. The living aura dies with the departure of its essential animating spirit. I have seen a lot of strange and wonderful things around people when they have died, but never have I seen a living aura around a human corpse. The human aura is not to be mistaken as just a mere reflection of what goes on within the living body. It is an integral part of the bioenergetic system binding the essential animating spirit in physical matter, i.e., in its physical body. It is not insubstantial like a rainbow or a projected image. It is only ever present in a living being. It has depth and texture, it has warm and cool areas, and parts of it tingle and pulse -- to the hands of a sensitive that is. There is a unique look and feel to any human aura. It is a living thing that can be keenly felt by the hands of sensitives and healers, as well as seen and sensed in other ways. The human energy system and its aura, and all the wonderfully complex life processes going on within and around it, enable the essential animating spirit to manifest through it into the physical dimension. The spirit animates the physical body through this wonderful bioenergetic process. When it is a spirits time to leave its physical body, this all closes down. It is no longer needed when the spirit goes home again, back to its natural timeless state. The living aura is still very mysterious, for all the little we know about it. And its existence cannot simply be explained away. It may not fit in with our present level of scientific understanding, but that does not mean it does not exist or is any less real. Aura is strictly a living thing. (RB)

Венера: Necrophilia in the Necromantic Rite It is very easy to get "caught up" in the ecstasy of Death, especially during high necromantic practice when the spirit of one's affection is manifest through a physical catalyst, such as a corpse. One must never violate the sanctity of Death for one's own physical curiosity or pleasure. You must never force your affections onto an unwilling or unresponsive catalyst. Doing such is no better than raping an innocent child. In necromantic practice, the corpse must always be viewed as the pure vessel that contains a divine spirit. The crypt is a sacred temple, and the catalyst, a sacred chalice that must never be defiled by empty, physical urges. The only passions that should manifest in the physical are those born in the spirit. In other words, all sensual stirrings must have firm roots in the soul. One must love the entity one is seeking to contact, and not simply make "love" to the empty catalyst. If there is contact on the spiritual level, the catalyst will either make the first move, or respond in some way to your advances, and you need only follow its lead. To violate a corpse for simply the satiating of one's own sexual needs is the highest form of irreverence one can show towards Death, and he or she who engages in such profanity will feel the full wrath of Azrael's fury. One can "make love" to Death on many levels, providing they emerge from the core of the soul, and not the seat of the libido. Death is a gentle and exquisite lover who can take you to new heights of expression, providing that you do not try to pull Him down into the physical too much, in which case Death's affections are anything but gentle! Being a magician, especially in the necromantic arts, does not give one license to "do what thou wilt". In dealings with such entities as the Angel of Death, one must adopt a new law, a law of reverence and purity of spirit. Divine love is the "law", and nothing less be the purpose of thy will.

Венера: ESSENTIAL DARKNESS One of the biggest fears still continues to be Death. The ultimate "dark unknown." But even Death can be intimately known and understood here and now. All one has to do is listen to the night. The Angel of Death's message is carried on the cool breezes that come out of nowhere. His whisper demands hearing. It permeates our collective memory with a Truth that is undeniable. Too many try to "rationalize" His whisper as coincidence or madness. Remember what "coincidence" really is. Signs in succession try desperately to gain your attention. And madness? Well, madness is nothing more than remembering too much and not knowing how to justify that memory with every day life. The "madness" subsides when understanding and acceptance begins. Mankind has a long way to go until (S)he understands the true nature of Death. Death is not the bringer of pain. Death is the release from pain. Death does not want your tears of grieving, nor does He deserve your anger. You lash out only of misunderstanding, which too often grows into fear and aversion. He knows that He is the one who truly grieves. Death does not require the sacrifice of innocence. No soul need accompany another destined for eternity, as some earlier tenets believed. We must go each, at our own time. No one before the other unless it is so deemed. And it is not we who can make that judgement. Death is not what you read in the headlines. Death is not brutality, rape, murder, suicide, mutilation or other such things perpetrated by one human against another. This is Lifenot Death! To die is to let go of the flesh and all that the flesh receives and sends out. Dying is something we have all done before, and which most of us will do again and again. The way in which we die is not of Azrael's choosing. It is as random or preordained (depending on how you view creation) as the way in which we come into this world. How we come and go does not matter. It is what we do in-between that counts. Mankind must relearn how to feelhis thoughts, not simply think them. We must return again to acting upon what we feel inside is truth, and not to what others enforce as truth. In essence, we must reconnect with our spiritual self on all levels of life, not just for brief moments in meditation. Then, we will be able to feel again, and remember who and what we truly are. In the light of such revelation, there will be no room for fear. For, we will discover the "dark" side of ourselves again and realize that this is what was missing in our lives. That this darkness is a necessary and beautiful part of our essential being, without which we would be forevermore separated from our true selves, and our ultimate purpose. This is the essence of duality. The importance of balance. In order to completely coalesce that duality back into the Union of One we must achieve an equal balance within ourselves to the point where both halves of the dualism cannot distinguish one from the other. All thoughts and emotions become blended unequivocally. In effect, the "spiritual" portion of our duality becomes sentiently human, and the human side becomes sentiently astral. This is something "we" understand all too well sometimes. It is never an easy or painless thing. Although, if we ever hope, both personally, and as a collective mass, to end the cycle of birth, death and rebirth into and out of flesh, it is something we must learn to accomplish. And we learn by heeding the fleeting glimpses of memory of who and what we truly are until that memory becomes the sole guiding force of purpose. Nonetheless, being here and now in human form and coalescing your duality can prove to be quite a disconcerting experience. A kind of madness that disrupts the human synaptic system, pitting mind against emotion, and flesh against spirit. The Ego's limited expression of self fights against the expanse of its true nature. The Ego soon comes to realize that it is a very small "part" of "itself" and eventually gets consumed by its greater part. In effect, the personality is absorbed into the union that duality ultimately becomes

Венера: A Necromancer's Prayer Ad tu, deditio meus cor, meus amina, meus credo. ea id cum fides ille cado in tuus potens ala ea id cum amor ille offero calix de meus cor- bibo profundis de meus vita ille licet cognosco altitudos de flumen de oblivio et memoria. ea id sine timor et cum desiderium verus ille osculum tuus tranquillus, frigus oris prudens ille hic memoria volo esse meus ultimas. (English Translation) To thee, I surrender, my heart, my soul, my trust. It is with Faith that I fall into your mighty wings. It is with love that I offer up the chalice of my heart, Drink deep of my life that I might know the depths of the river of Forgetfulness and Memory. It is without fear and with true desire that I kiss your still, cold lips knowing that this memory shall be my last

Венера: A Brief History of the Methods of Necromancy Necromancy has had a long and very disparate history between cultures and generations. The definition seems to slide in every way at once thus seemingly muddling its clarity. Many cultures and societies and sub-cultures have adopted the term "necromancy" as the title of their practice, which is not necessarily wrong, but it has caused confusion for the etymologically-minded who tend to be quick to point a finger at things which do not fit the strict definition of "corpse divination" as it might appear to their modern standards. Necromancy's etymology comes from two Greek words. "Nekros" which means "corpse" and "manteia" which means "prophesy". Despite these roots though, we must remember a fact about the nature of dictionaries which is most poignantly brought out by Jorge Luis Borges in the prologue to "El otro, el mismo". He cleverly noted that "It is often forgotten that [dictionaries] are artificial repositories, put together well after the languages they define. The roots of language are irrational and of a magical nature." It is difficult, and indeed often impossible, for the modern occultist to look at a dictionary as their source of information about the nature of a practice. "Necromancy means spirit divination!" they shout. Delving into case examples, both modern and historical, gives us quite a different picture though. A peculiar (and damning!) habit of those claiming knowledge in the ways of necromancy is how they define the art. It takes little more than a brief scan of random internet pages about the subject of necromancy to discover that, in the overwhelming majority of sites that exist on this subject, the definition is a simple etymological breakdown which then immediately departs from the roots of the system to dash blindly into new age mediumism. The origins of the word "necromancy" itself comes from the Greek and Roman world where necromancy was practiced as the name might suggest: divination out of corpses. It developed, however, in many ways which would bring about the common myths and legends that we know of in the modern age. Surprisingly enough, the image of necromancy has not been too wildly distorted throughout the ages by media and legend. Spins are always given, of course, but the general idea of a necromancy holds fast: one who works with the powers of death. This may take many forms. Historically, necromancy has ranged from everything between spirit communications to out-of-body trips to the underworld (known as katabasis in Greek, or as "Greater Necromancy" by some) and even extending so far as to curse and hex the living or impose quests upon the dead via hex tablets (katadesmoi). Some of necromancy's history even includes speaking to underworld demons and specfically asking boons of them to aid the necromancer in their purpose or invoking the spirit of another (or an underworld demon) to gain their strengths and help. The different forms are manifold and well exceed the strict boundaries the modern critic might suspect by simple word origins. Necromancy itself has developed in many stages since the inception of the word to describe this practice, however. Distinct forms from different cultures have arisen based on superstitions as seen in Voodoo, dominant religious beliefs such as Christianity's overwhelming effect on medieval European necromancy and also in Egyptian incorporation of Osiris in rites of death, and also simply things that people expected based on absolutely nothing such as grave robbing and raising zombie legions. For this reason, it is impossible to blanketly say "This is the history of necromancy" with any certainty (though there are certainly no lack of web pages which claim to have 'the history of necromancy' condensed sufficiently). Necromancy has many definitions which change according to which culture is being used as the source of necromantic archetyping and thus we come to the conflict between different necromantic traditions. Some necromancers do nothing more than glorified mediumism. They are spiritists and have no interest in the extensible powers related to soul manipulation. These typically retreat back to the realm of new age divination though as they are not welcomed by diviner nor necromancer by virtue of their short-sightedness. Other necromancers are simply interested in hexcraft and all but ignore the divinatory aspects. These, while not shunned, have been traditionally kept at arm's length so as to avoid being caught in thanatoic cross-fire. Another of the necromantic strains are those who have tried to formalise necromancy and turn it into a ceremonial charade with wand, staff, powder, circle, and sword. These are relatively recent additions to the necromantic tradition that were imposed by belief in Judeo-Christian dogmas in the middle ages, usually carried over by ritual-heavy ceremonialism (Waite, for example); they have tainted the system and have earned little respect among the necromantic community. Among the strains of necromancer that exist there are also the thanatoists and azraelites who seek to know the avatar of death itself. These are the artistically inclined necromancers who seek to know death as a personal guardian and patron. Holding least firmly to traditional necromancy, many practitioners have had mixed feelings about them. Yet another strain of necromancer is the soul manipulator. This is the sort of necromancy presented on Ars Falcis. The soul manipulator seeks only to learn the powers of manipulating the soul and studying the interaction between soul and the material plane. In general, it is an acceptable enough practice in itself but has an uncanny tendency to bring practitioners into conflict with those of any other path. There are also many other types of practitioner, yet it would be fruitless to mention all of them here. Suffice it to say that the necromantic tradition has found itself mirrored in a thousand fragment, each with their own gifts, rationales, and methods.

Венера: Necromancy, more than any other magical system, is responsible for the reputation of occult cults and sects holding graveyard rites and performing the infamous "blood sacrifice". Be it human or animal, blood sacrifice was at one time considered an important part of many necromantic rites. The reputation of having undead legions at the necromancer's command is not entirely undue either. Though the physical dead, it is generally agreed among modern necromancers, are not going to be moving again, commanding a legion of geists fuelled by the blessings of the underworld are not uncommon even in contemporary practices. The underworld, the quasi-demonic, the ghostly, and the spectres of the once living are channelled and commanded by the necromancer to gain power in the mortal realm. Often there were sacrifices of the living to appease the dead in historical necromantic rites and other offerings, either burned or simply left to rot, to entice and appease necromantic entities. In some cases the necromancer disembodied themselves by entering a trance-coma which emulates being dead in what would be called an "out of body experience" (OOBE or OBE) to harness the hellish ethers of death personally. Interfacing with the realm of death and its spirits (known as nekuodaimones in Greek necromancy) has been a long-standing tradition of infernal meddling that has earned the necromancer a ghastly but reverenced position in occult history. The first traces of necromancy itself come from the classic Greek era and thus much of the history and terminology used within the art stems from that culture. Necromancy has been analyzed by few decent writers, unfortunately, but those that have made a respectable effort at it tend to break down the practice into a few broad classes: Greek and Roman Necromancy, Latin (Medieval European) Necromancy, African Necromancy (including many Voodoo rites), Egyptian Necromancy, and Oriental Necromancy. The intended focus of this site is to make most of the Greek, Roman, and European necromantic variants though hopefully the other types will find a place here as well over time. This is only a most brief breakdown of the art of necromancy barely sufficient to touch on the major facets of practice, let alone the actual historical developments or belief systems associated with these. Necromancy is a profoundly old non-doctrinal occult practice which persists even to this day. With this we delve into the art itself in search of answers.

Венера: Necromancy: The craft of raising death Necromancy is a form of divination ( fortune-telling by using things) by using the dead. It belongs to the voodoo religion and is a form of black magic practiced by witches and magicians. Nowadays there are only a very few people who practice it and those who do have a bad reputation. Most magicians say that necromancy is evil and that it has absolutely no purpose. For necromancers death is the eternal blessing. They believe that when they die they will go to their god Elan. Necromancers want to be close to the dead so sometimes they even live at abandoned graveyards and steal corpses. Necromancy has it's roots in many sources such as astral magick, Muslim mysticism, Hebrew traditions and Christianity. A classic case of Necromancy is the witch of Endoor. In the bible book 1 Samael 28 she calls upon the spirit of the death prophet Samael who then predicts the dead of Saul. Necromancy is a Greek word meaning 'dead' and 'divination'. There are 2 forms of necromancy: divination with ghosts and divination with corpses. The Necromancer used the help of powerful spirits when he raised a dead person for his own protection and to put his will on the person he raised. This is what makes necromancy so dangerous because sometimes the spirit could take possession of his medium. Necromancy comes from Persia, Greece and Rome. It was practiced most during the middle ages because it really flourished when the catholic church said it was forbidden to practice necromancy. It was considered as an act of witchcraft and a lot of necromancers were hanged or burned. But the truth is that necromancy has nothing to do with summoning devils and demons. Necromancers just call the spirits of dead people to predict the future. They believe that once a person has died he no longer experiences the limits of an earthly body and he is able to look in the past and future and can get information which mortals can't. How to raise a dead person 1 Necromancy has good purposes and bad purposes. It is bad when you want to raise someone to gain power or money and according to some necromancers these people should be banished but of course the choice is up to you. Yes, that's why death magick, or necromancy, is so great. When you start a ritual your purpose is to get the ghost to appear in front of you. But of course you must make sure you are well protected during this ritual because an evil ghost might show up and you don't want to join the dead already now do you?. When you perform a ritual you need an assistant, a good necromancer always has an assistant! Found an assistant? all right then we can start. At first look for a good place to perform the ritual. It's best if you chose a magical spot such as a forest or a desert. But the best would be to chose a crossroads because there is always a lot of magic in the air at such places. The ritual has to be done at night between 24:00 and 1:00 and it' best when the moon is full. It's a positive sign if the elements such as wind are working that night because then it is much harder for a ghost to remain invisible. After you found a spot you have to draw a circle on the ground and you and your assistant have to step inside that circle. These circle is full of of all kinds of signs en lines and is about 9 feet square. You nor your assistant should ever leave the circle before the ghost is sent away cause that could kill you. A lot of idiots who thought the ghost didn't appear stepped out and found out the evil ghost did appear but invisible and they got killed. That's why the ritual has to be performed very carefully because an evil ghost might appear. So, the ritual is performed around midnight at the grave of the dead person if he has a grave. There are several reasons why you would want to raise a dead person but now I'm only going to teach you how to raise one of your beloved ones. You must, in the first place, carefully collect the memorials of him (or her of course) whom you desire to behold, the articles he used, and on which his impressions ; we must also prepare an apartment in which the person lived, or otherwise, one of similar kind, and place his portrait veiled in white therein, surrounded with his favorite flowers, which must be renewed daily. A fixed date must than be observed, either the birthday of the person, or that day which was most fortunate for his and your own affection, one of which we may believe that his soul, however blessed elsewhere, cannot lose the remembrance; this must be the day for the evocation and we must provide for it during the space of fourteen days. Throughout this period we must refrain from extending to anyone the same proofs of affection which we have the right to expect from the dead; we must observe strict chastity, live in retreat, and take only the modest and light collation daily. Every evening at the same memory of the lamented person, using only one small light, such as that of a funeral lamp or taper. This light should be placed behind us, the portrait should be uncovered and we should remain before it for an hour, in silence; finally, we should fumigate the apartment with a little good incense, and go out backwards. On the morning of the day, fixed for the evocation,we should adorn ourselves as if for a festival, not salute anyone first, make but a single repast of of bread, wine, and roots, or fruits; the cloth should be white, two covers should be laid, and one portion of the bread broken should be set aside; a little wine should also be placed in the glass of the person we design to invoke. The meal must be eaten alone in the chamber of evocations, and in the presence of the veiled portrait; it must be all cleared away at the end, except the glass belonging to the dead person, and his portion of bread, which must be placed before the portrait. In the evening, at the hour for the regular visit, we must repair in silence to the chamber, light a fire of cypress wood, and cast incense seven times thereon, pronouncing the name of the person whom we desire to behold. The lamp must then be extinguished, and the fire permitted to die out.

Венера: On this day the portrait must not be unveiled. When the flame is extinct, put more incense on the ashes, and invoke God according to the forms of the religion to which the dead person belonged, and according to the ideas which he himself possessed of God. While making this prayer you must identify yourself with the evoked person, speak as he spoke, believe in a sense as he believed; then call him thrice with with a loud voice, tarry on our knees, the eyes closed and covered,for some minutes; then call again thrice upon him in a sweet and affectionate tone, and slowly open the eyes. Should nothing result, the same experiment must be renewed in the following year, and if necessary a third time, when it is certain that the desired apparition will be obtained, and the longer it has been delayed the more realistic and striking it will be. How to raise a dead person 2 This one is to get some of your questions answered; Approach the grave of the chosen corpse at sunset or midnight. Draw a circle around the grave; burn a mixture of henbane, aloe wood, hemlock, saffron, opium, and mandrake. With the coffin open, touch the corpse three times with a wand and tell it to rise. The corpse should be arranged with the head to the east and arms and legs in the position of Christ when he was crucified. Command the spirit to enter it' old body and to answer all questions put to it or else suffer torment and wandering thrice seven years. After your questions are answered burn the body. How to raise a dead person 3 Apart from raising infernal or familiar spirits you can also exorcise the apparition or ghost of a departed person. In order to do this, the Magician and his assistant must first repair to the churchyard or tomb where the deceased was buried, exactly at midnight, as the ceremony can only be performed in the night between the hours of twelve and one. The grave is first to be opened, or an aperture made by which access may be had to the naked body. The magician having described the circle, and holding a magic wand in his right hand, while his companion or assistant beareth a consecrated torch, he turns himself to all the four winds, and, touching the dead body three times with the magical wand, repeats as follows: "By the virtue of the holy resurrection, and the torments of the damned, I conjure and exorcise thee, Spirit of N. deceased, to answer my liege demands, being obedient unto these sacred ceremonies, on pain of everlasting torment and distress.... Berald, Beroald, Balbin, Gab, Gabor, Agaba. Arise, arise, I charge and command thee!" After these forms and ceremonies, the ghost or apparition will become visible, and will answer any questions put to it by the exorcist. But if it be desired to put interrogatories to the spirit of any corpse that has hanged, drowned or otherwise made away with itself, the conjuration must be performed while the body lies on the spot where it is first found after the suicide hath been committed, and before it is touched or removed. The ceremony is as follows. The exorcist binds upon the top of his wand a bundle of St. John's word of Millies perforatum, with the head of an owl; and having repaired to the spot where the corpse lies, at twelve o' clock at night, he draws the circle and solemnly repeats these words:

Венера: "By the mysteries of the deep, by the flames of Banal, by the power of the east and the silence of the night, By the holy rites of Hecate, I conjure and exorcise thee, thou distressed spirit, to present thyself here and reveal unto me the cause of thy calamity why thou didst offer violence to thy own liege life, where thou art now in being, and where thou wilt hereafter be." Then gently smiting the carcass nine times with the rod, he adds: "I conjure thee, thou spirit of this N. deceased to answer my demands that I propound unto thee, as thou ever hopest for the rest of the holy ones and ease of all the misery; by the blood of Jesus which he shed for thy soul, I conjure thee and bind thee to utter unto me what I shall ask thee." Then cutting down the carcass from the tree, they shall lay its head towards the east; in the space that this following conjuration is repeating, they shall set a chafing-dish of fire at its right hand, into which they shall pour a little wine, some mastic and some gum-aromatic, and lastly (the contents of it) a vial full of the sweetest oil. They shall have also a pair of bellows and some unkindled charcoal to make the fire burn bright when the carcass rises. The conjuration is this: "I conjure thee, thou spirit of N. that thou do immediately enter into thy ancient body again and answer to my demands; by the virtue of the holy resurrection, and by the posture of the body of the savior of the world, I charge thee I conjure thee, I command thee, on pain of the torments and wandering of thrice seven years, which I, by the force of sacred magic rites, have power to inflict upon thee; by the sights and groans I conjure thee to utter thy voice." This ceremony being thrice repeated, while the fire is burning with mastic and gun-aromatic, the body will begin to rise, and at last will stand upright before the exorcist, answering with a faint and hollow voice the questions propounded unto it: why it destroyed itself, where its dwelling is, what its food and life are, how long it will be ere it enter into rest, and by what means the magician may assist it to come to the rest; also of the treasures of this world, where they are hid. Moreover, it can answer very punctually concerning the places where ghosts reside, and of the manner of communicating with them, teaching the nature of Astral spirits and hellish beings so far as its capacity alloweth. All this when the ghost hath fully answered, the magician ought out of commiseration and reverence to the deceased, to use what means can possibly be used for procuring rest unto the spirit, to which effect he must dig a grave, and filling the same half full of quicklime, with a little salt and common sulfur, must put the carcass naked into it. Next to the burning of the body into ashes, this is of great force to quiet and end the disturbance of the Astral Spirit. But in this and in all cases where the ghosts or apparitions of deceased persons are raised up and consulted, great caution is to be observed by the Magician to keep close within the circle; for if, by the constellation and those who follow the Black art for iniquitous purposes, it is very dangerous to conjure any spirits without describing the form of the circle, and wearing upon the heart, or holding in the hand, the Pentacle of Solomon. For the ghosts of men deceased can easily effect sudden death to the magician born under such a constellation of the planets, even whilst in the act of being exorcised.

Венера: Garden Necromancy: Summoning Spirits Many, many plants have historically been associated with the dead and the spirit world; often these were grave goods (offerings buried with the dead, see bottom of this page), or plants traditionally grown in cemeteries. The plant traditionally associated with raising the dead is the yew, but there are many other plants which are associated with the dead for the purpose of summoning the spirits, most often to entice the spirit into answering questions about the future. The magical incense burned by witches to attract spirits and help the materialize is known as a "suffumigation". Various plants were used in suffumigations, including anise, dried carnation flowers, amaranth flowers, and gardenia petals, dittany of Crete, frankincense, heather, pipsissewa, sweetgrass, and wormwood. Dittany, in particular, was considered an excellent base; spirits would appear in the center of the smoke. Balm of gillead was also burned as a material basis for spirits. Asafoetida destroys the spirit manifestations when throw into the fire (although I've also found information that it pulls in negative spirits). Sandalwood is very commonly combined with other herbs for conjuring spirits. Wormwood, mixed with sandalwood, should be burned while in a graveyard. This will cause the spirits of the dead there to rise and speak. Crushed willow bark with sandalwood should be burned outdoors during the waning moon for conjuring. Sandalwood and frankincense is burned during seances. Lavender is also mixed with sandalwood for spirit summoning. An incense for summoning recalcitrant spirits consists of three parts wormwood and one part Solomon's Seal. This is good for human dead who are not in very helpful moods. An incense for summoning spirits which were in a depressed state when they died consists of three parts wormwood and one part vervain. This is also good for people who are not aware they are dead. This will not only call them, but will also lighten their mood. The ancient Greeks believed that wormwood should be burned on a fire of privet in order to summon the dead, since a fire of privet was thought to open the doors of the Underworld. A recipe from a seventeenth century manuscript, 'Secret of Secrets', gives the following recipe for calling spirits: Hermes saith there is nothing like unto spermaceti to Raise spirits suddenly, being compounded of spermaceti, lignum aloes and pepperwort and Muske saffron Red storage mixed with the bloud of a Lapwing this being fumigated. And if it be fumigated About Toombes or graves of the dead it causes spirits and ghosts of the dead to gather together as it is sayd. Other spirit offerings used, especially if seeking blessings from the spirits, include lilac, mint, and purple heather, specifically. Pipsissewa is blended with rose petals and violets to draw beneficial spirits. Catnip, if grown near the house or hung over the door will attract good spirits and good luck. Althea is considered a 'spirit puller': you place it on the altar to bring in good spirits during a ceremony. Solomon's Seal was used as an offering to elementals when pleading for their aid. Bladderwrack was used specifically to summon water spirits. Broom (the plant, not the household implement) was used to call forth the spirits of the air. From a mountaintop, you would throw the broom up in the air to raise the winds and to call the air spirits. When the winds needed to be calmed, you would burn the broom and bury the ashes. Boil some thistle, then remove it from heat and lie or sit beside it as the steam rises. Listen carefully, and you should be able to get the spirits to answer your questions. Tea made from dandelion root and placed beside the bed while still steaming will also call them. The Chinese called spirits using bamboo flutes-they would carve the name of the spirit into a bamboo flute. A flute carved from elder, played at midnight far from human habitation, will also summon them. A German legend says that a sprig of mistletoe carried into an old house will allow you to see the ghosts that live there, and that you can also force the ghosts to answer your questions. In ancient Greece, visitors to the Oracle of the Dead on the bank of the river Acheron were given lupin seeds to eat before the spirits of the dead were invoked.

Венера: Growing your Grave Goods Unlike the modern aphorism, 'You can't take it with you', most cultures around the world did a great deal to make the transition into the Afterworld comfortable for the being in question, which meant including objects in the grave which would travel with the person. These objects were often of a person nature, and would include stones, artifacts, minerals, shells, vessels, amulets, food, and drugs. The Neanderthals of Shanidar put flowers in graves 60,000 years ago. To help you with the selection of plant material that you would like included in your gravesite with you, here are plants that have traditionally been included in graves from cultures all around the world. Many of these plants have interesting properties, which makes them valuable while you're still alive, too. Beans. Beans of some sort were part of belief systems just about everywhere in the world. They were considered guardians of life energy and food of the gods. Many beans have 'magical effects', and as such, had cults surrounding them, such as the mezcal bean. Other beans were used as death charms, such as jequirity, which was ground and then brushed across the threshold of a house. The person entering barefoot would then die. Bean fetish objects were often included in graves. Cedar. This was used by the Egyptians for magical cosmetics and perfumes, incense, and to embalm mummies. It was also venerated by the Romans and the ancient Mesopotamians. In his Herbal, Dioscorides called cedar "the life of death". Colorines. The Aztecs associated colorines with sacrificial death. They carved figures of their gods from the wood, and used the beans as an aphrodisiac and for producing dreams. Ephedra. One of the oldest magical plants known to man, ephedra was used in the Iranian Haoma cult, Tantric moon rituals, orgiastic Saturnalia, and N.A. Indian vision quests. Consequently, the leaves of this plant were often included in the funerary goods. Guayusa. This type of holly grows in Ecuador, and has been found in graves there dating from 500 BC. The leaves were found in medicine bags, along with snuff pipes. This plant is supposed to give strength and auspicious dreams, and is used as an emetic and enema. Hemp is one of oldest cultivated plants. It was originally grown in China, and has been used by almost every culture in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It's medicinal and inebriant uses are well known. Lotus. The lotus flower is a symbol of perfection, immortality, and enlightenment. The roots and seeds were used as amulets.

Венера: Maize. The Maya say that maize has the greatest life energy of any plant. Dried kernels are used as oracles and worn as amulets. Maize supposedly has the power to dispel demons. Matй. Matй Yerba shrub leaves were found in pre-Columbian graves in the Andes. The leaves were placed in gourds lined with silver, so the dead could make matй tea and remain awake on their journey to the afterlife. Poppy. This was one of the plants, along with henbane, thornapple, and tobacco, which later became associated with witches. However, poppy capsules have been found in archaeological sites in Switzerland which belong to the Lake Dwellers, and are 4000 years old. Prickly Poppy. Aztecs thought that 'all poisonous plants are eaten in the underworld, and all who go there eat prickly poppy'. This is a medicinal plant with many uses. San Pedro Cactus. A Peruvian plant, also found in pre-Columbian graves, which was used for traveling to unseen worlds. Tobacco. Originally a New World plant, it was adopted into magical ceremonies all over the world. Mayan temples and pyramids are decorated with images of the plant and their gods smoking tobacco. It was an important inclusion in pre-Columbian graves. Boxwood. Now used mainly as a hedge, sprigs of boxwood were found in three early Roman coffins (probably a local custom). Much later, the English used boxwood at funerals. The custom was to leave sprays of it next to the door so that people could take a spray and throw in into the grave at the appropriate time. Juniper. The coffin juniper, Juniperus recurva var. coxii, has a resinous wood that is used for Buddhist incense and for, obviously, making coffins. The Greeks burned juniper berries at funerals to repel demons.

Венера: necromancy Necromancy is divination by raising the spirits of the dead. The word derives from the Greek necros "dead" and manteia "divination". It has a subsidiary meaning reflected in an alternative and archaic form of the word, nigromancy, (a folk etymology using Latin niger, "black") in which the magical force of "dark powers" is gained from or by acting upon corpses. A practitioner of necromancy is a necromancer. Necromancy in history The historian Strabo (Strabo, xvi. 2, 39, νεκρομαντεις) refers to necromancy as the principal form of divination amongst the people of Persia; and it is believed to also have been widespread amongst the peoples of Chaldea (particularly amongst the Sabians or star-worshippers), Etruria and Babylonia. The Babylonian necromancers themselves were called Manzazuu or Sha'etemmu and the spirits they raised were called Etemmu. In the Odyssey (XI), Odysseus makes a voyage to Hades, the Underworld, and raises the spirits of the dead using spells which he had learnt from Circe. His intention was to invoke the shade of Tiresias, but he was unable to summon it alone without the accompaniment of others. There are also many references to necromancy in the Bible. The Book of Deuteronomy (XVIII 9–12) explicitly warns the Israelites against the Canaanite practice of divination from the dead. This warning was not always heeded: King Saul asked the Witch of Endor to invoke the shade of Samuel, for example, and there are many other notable evocations of the dead within the Bible. Some might argue that Jesus' raising of Lazarus from the dead was a prima facie case of necromancy, though Lazarus was raised in both body and spirit, and simply resumed his previous life after the event. Norse mythology also contains examples of necromancy, such as the scene in the Völuspá in which Odin summons a seeress from the dead to tell him of the future. In Grogaldr, the first part of Svipdagsmál, the hero Svipdag summons his dead Völva mother, Groa, to cast spells for him. The 17th century Rosicrucian Robert Fludd describes Goetic necromancy as consisting of "diabolical commerce with unclean spirits, in rites of criminal curiosity, in illicit songs and invocations and in the evocation of the souls of the dead". Modern séances, channeling and Spiritualism verge on necromancy when the invoked spirits are asked to reveal future events. Necromancy may also be dressed up as sciomancy, a branch of theurgic magic. Necromancy is extensively practised in voodoo.

Венера: Necramancy is, essentially, the practice of consulting the dead. Divination by aid of the dead is said to have been common among the Persians [Strabo], and at a later time among the Greeks and Romans as well. The Israelites possibly borrowed the art from the Persians, and practiced it extensively, so that the Bible repeatedly forbids it (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6,27; Deuteronomy 18:11; I Samuel 28; Isaiah 8:19). Jews and Christians are both forbidden from practicing necromancy. There were three classes of necromancers, "ob," "yidde'oni," and "doresh el ha-metim" (questioner of the dead), the first two usually being mentioned together. While the general meaning of "ob" and "yidde'oni" is clear, their etymology and exact connotation have not yet been determined. "Ob" is said to denote the soothsaying spirit (in this sense as early as Josephus, who lived A.D.37 to 100) or the ghost of the dead. The Septuagint generally translates the Hebrew word as "ventriloquist," deriving the meaning from the tone of voice adopted by the necromancer. Jewish tradition says, "Ob is the python, who speaks from his armpits; yidde'oni is he who speaks with his mouth." According to the Talmud, the yidde'oni used a bone of the animal called "yaddua'" in his mouth, which is made to speak by magic. The "possessor of the ob" stooped while speaking to make it appear as if the spirit spoke from his joints and arms. Two objects are mentioned by means of which the necromancer worked, one being a human skull. Paraphernalia Although the Bible does not mention the apparatus used in necromancy, that some sort of paraphernalia was employed is clear from the mention of teraphim, etc. (II Kings 23:24), and also from the expressions which designate the employment of the oracle (II Kings 21:6, II Chronicles 32:6). The Bible indicates still more clearly the manner of appearance and speech. Samuel was manifested to the witch of Endor as an old man covered with a mantle, so that she immediately recognized him as a man of God. The shade invoked evidently assumed the same shape that he had had in life. The form, however, was visible only to the necromancer, while the questioner heard merely the voice (I Samuel 28:13-14). The latter sounded as if it came out of the earth, the speech of these necromancers being therefore called whispering and muttering (Isaiah 8:19). Rabbinical literature indicates that the questioner prepared himself by fasting to be in a proper spiritual condition to receive the ghostly visitant. The fact that necromancy was classed with idolatry and all kinds of magic shows its connection therewith, and, probably, its foreign origin (Deuteronomy 18:10-11; II Kings 21:6; Isaiah 19:3). Necromancy, like idolatry and magic in general, was believed to have been chiefly practiced by women. Saul, who applied in his distress to a female necromancer, had previously driven from the country all those who practiced divination by aid of the dead (I Samuel 28:9). But, Manasseh favored them as well as all other idolaters (II Kings 21:6); his elder contemporary, the prophet Isaiah, has in fact given the most explicit references to necromancers (Isaiah 8:19, 19:3, 29:4). Josiah, who took for his guide the newly discovered book of the Law, destroyed them (II Kings 23:24). In Talmudic Times In spite of all measures directed against them, and notwithstanding frequent interdicts in the Torah, necromancers persisted and persist even now in practicing their art. The principal message of the Talmud (see our Judaism Fact Sheet for definitions of The Talmud and The Torah) concerning them has been given above. The teachers of the Talmud call magicians "those that dig up the dead" and "those who predict by means of bones of the dead." A Babylonian scholar declared the art and speech of "osteomanty" (use of bones) to be deceit and falsehood. In general, however, the veracity of the spirit was not doubted, since even the ghost of Samuel had been evoked, according to I Samuel chapter 28. It was regarded as a rule that if the necromancer saw the ghost which he evoked, the questioner heard the voice; but if the latter saw the apparition, the necromancer heard the voice. To hear and see at the same time was considered impossible

Венера: Various tales are told about those seeking the services of necromancers. One goes like this: When the nephew of emperor Titus was thinking of embracing Judaism, he evoked the spirits of Titus, Balaam, and Jesus in succession, and asked them for advice. The first two dissuaded him, while Jesus counseled him to carry out his intention. Other stories: Rab, the foremost teacher of Babylon, "performed some ceremony in the cemetery, and ascertained that 99 out of 100 persons die from the evil eye and that only one dies a natural death. A later Babylonian teacher says that the necromancer burned incense to the demon, and thus questions him. A more innocent mode of necromancy was listening secretly to the conversations of the dead. Some persons fasted and spent the night in a cemetery, in order that the "spirit of uncleanness" might visit them and enable them to find out the future or other hidden matters, since the dead were supposed to dwell in an unclean place. This belief may be implied in Isaiah 65:4 (compare Acts 16:16). This kind of necromancy is perhaps meant in the expression "a consulter with familiar spirits" (Deuteronomy 18:11). According to Jewish tradition, necromancy will be punished by God and not by man.

Венера: NECROMANCY WE have declared boldly our opinion, or rather our con-viction, as to the possibility of resurrection in certain cases: it remains for us now to complete the revelation of this arcanum and to expose its practice. Death is a phantom of ignorance; it does not exist; everything in Nature is living, and it is because it is alive that everything is in motion and undergoes incessant change of form. Old age is the beginning af regeneration; it is the labour of renewing life; and the ancients represented the mystery we term death by the Fountain of Youth, which was entered in decrepitude and 'left in new childhood. The body is a garment of the soul. When this garment is worn out completely, or seriously and ,irreparably rent, it is abandoned and never rejoined. But when it is removed by some accident without being worn aut or destroyed, it can, in certain cases, be reassumed, either by our own efforts or by the assistance of a stronger and more active will than ours. Death is neither the end of life nor the beginning of immortality: it is the continuation and transformation' of life.1 Now a transformation being always a progress, few of those who are apparently dead will consent to .return to life, that is, to take up the vestment which they have left behind. It is this which makes resurrec-tion one of the hardest works of the highest initiation, and hence its success is never infallible, but must be regarded almost invariablY)l8 accidental and unexpected. To raise up a dead person we must rivet suddenly and energetically the most powerful chains of attraction which connect it with 1 "Life is eternal. Death, being ideologically the negation of life, can be only apparent and transitory. Transitory death is but a phenomenon of eternal life, analogous to that of sleeping or waking."-Le Livre des Sages. p. 61. the body that it has just quitted. It is, therefore, necessary to be acquainted previously with this chain, then to seize thereon, finally to project an effort of will sufficiently powerful to link it up instantaneously and irresistibly. All this, as we say, is extremely difficult, but is in no sense absolutely impossible. The prejudices of materialistic science exclude resurrection at present from the natural order of things, and hence there is a disposition to explain all phenomena of this class by lethargies, more or less com plicated with signs of death and more or less long in duration. If Lazarus rose again before our doctors, they would record in their memorials to official academies a strange case of lethargy, accompanied by an apparent beginning of putrefaction and a strong corpse-like odour: the exceptional occurrence would be labelled with a suitable name, and the matter would be at an end. We have no wish to alarm anyone, and if, out of respect for men with diplomas who represent orthodox science, it is requisite to term our theories concerning resurrection the art of curing exceptional and aggravated trances, nothing, I hope, will hinder us from making such a concession. But if ever a resurrection has taken place in the world, it is incontestable that resurrection is possible. Now, the bodies corporate protect religion, and religion asserts positively the fact of resurrections; therefore resurrections are possible. From this escape is difficult.1 To say that such things are possible outside the laws of Nature, and by an influence contrary to universal harmony, is to affirm that the spirit of disorder, darkness and death can be sovereign arbiter of life. Let us not dispute with worshippers of the devil, but pass on. It is not religion alone which attests the facts of resurrec-tion: we have collected a number of cases. An occurrence which impressed the imagination of Greuze the painter has been reproduced by him in one of his most remarkable pictures. An unworthy son, present at his father's deathbed, 1 The reader will do well to observe this luminous syllogism, as an example of the logic belonging to "universal science" and a discoverer of the absolute in France of the Second Empire. It is otherwise a test of values for Levi's "occult sanctuary", not because he really thought that "from this escape is difficult", but hecause he knew well enough that he had taken out a licence in mockery. seizes and destroys a will unfavourable to himself; tIle father rallies, leaps up, curses his son and then drops back dead a second time. An analogous and more recent fact has been certified to ourselves by ocular witnesses: a friend, betraying the confidence of one who had just died, tore up a trust-deed, he had signed, whereupon the dead person rose up and lived to defend the rights of his chosen heirs, which this false friend sought to set aside; the guilty person went mad, and the risen man compassionately allowed him a pension. When the Saviour raised up the daughter of J airus, He was alone with three faithful and favoured disciples: He dismissed the noisy mourners, saying: "The girl is not dead but sleeping." Then, in the presence only of the father, mother and the three disciples, that is to say, in a perfect circle of confidence and desire, He took the child's hand, drew her suddenly up and cried to her: "Young girl, I say to thee, arise!" The undecided soul, doubtless in the immediate vicinity of the body, and possibly regretting its extreme youth and beauty, was surprised by the accents of that voice which was heard by her father and mother, trembling with hope and on their knees; it returned into the body; the maiden opened her eyes, rose up and the Master commanded immediately that food should be given her, so that the functions of life might begin a new cycle of absorption and regeneration. The history of Eliseus raising up the daughter of the Shunamite, and of St .Paul raising Eutychus are facts of the same order; the resurrection of Dorcas by St Peter, narrated so simply in the Acts of the Apostles, is also a history the truth of which it is difficult to dispute with reason. Apollonius of Tyana seems to have accomplished similar miracles, while we ourselves have been the witness of facts which are not wanting in analogy with these; but the spirit of the century in which we live imposes in this respect the most careful reserve upon us, the thaumaturge being liable to a very indifferent reception at the hands of a discerning public-all which does not hinder the earth from revolving or Galileo from having been a great man

Венера: The resurrection of a dead person is the masterpiece of magnetism, because it needs for its accomplishment the exercise of a kind of sympathetic omnipotence. It is possible in the case of death by congestion, by suffocation, by exhaustion or by hysteria. Eutychus, who was resuscitated by St Paul after falling from a third storey, had doubtless suffered no serious internal injuries, but had succumbed to asphyxia, occasioned by the rush of air during his fall, or alternatively to violent shock and terror. In a parallel case, he who feels conscious of the power and faith necessary for such an achievement must, like the apostle, practise insuffla-tion, mouth to mouth, combined with contact of the extremities for restoration of warmth. Were it simply a matter of what the ignorant call miracle, Elias and St Paul, who made use of the same procedure, would have spoken in the name of Jehovah or of Christ. It is enough sometimes to take the person by the hand and raise them quickly, summoning them in a loud voice. This procedure, which succeeds frequently in swoons, may even have effect upon the dead, when the magnetizer who exercises it is endowed with powerfully sympathetic speech and possesses what may be called eloquence of tone. He must be also tenderly loved or greatly respected by the person on whom he would operate, and he must perform the work with a great burst of faith and will, which we do not always find ourselves to possess in the first shock of a great sorrow. What is vulgarly called Necromancy has nothing in common with resurrection, and it is at least highly doubtful whether, in operations connected with this application of magical power, we really come into correspondence with the souls of the dead whom we evoke. There are two kinds of Necromancy, that of light and that of darkness-the evocation by Prayer, Pantacle and Perfumes, and the evocation by blood, imprecations and sacrilege. We have practised only the first, and advise no one to devote themselves to the second. It is certain that the images of the dead do appear to the magnetized 'persons who evoke them; it is certain also that they never reveal any mysteries of the life beyond. They are beheld as they still exist in the memories of those who knew them, and doubtless as their reflections have left them impressed on the Astral Light. When evoked spectres reply to questions addressed them, it is always by signs or by interior and imaginary impressions, never with a voice which really strikes the ears; and this is compre-hensible enough, for how should a shadow speak? With what instrument could it cause the air to vibrate by impressing it in such a manner as to make distinct sounds? At the same time, electrical contacts are experienced from apparitions and sometimes appear to be produced by the hand of a phantom; but the phenomena is wholly subjective, is occasioned solely by the power of imagination and the local wealth of that occult force which we term the Astral Light. The proof of this is that spirits, or at least the spectres pretended to be such, may indeed touch us occasionally, but we cannot touch them, and this is one of the most affrighting characteristics of these apparitions, which are at times so real in appearance that we cannot unmoved feel the hand pass through that which seems a body and yet make contact with nothing. We read in ecclesiastical historians that Spiridion, Bishop of Tremithonte, afterwards invoked as a saint, called up the spirit of his daughter, Irene, to ascertain from her the whereabouts of some concealed money which she had taken in charge for a traveller. Swedenborg communicated habitually with the so-called dead, whose forms appeared to him in the Astral Light. Several credible persons of our acquaintance have assured us that they have been revisited for years by the dead who were dear to them. The celebrated atheist Sylvanus Marechal appeared to his widow and ene of her friends, to acquaint her concerning a sum of '1,500 francs which he had concealed in a secret drawer. This anecdote was related to us by an old friend of the family. Evocations should have always a motive and a justifiable end; otherwise, they are works of darkness and folly, most dangerous for health and reason. To evoke out of pure curiosity, or to find out whether we shall see anything, is to court fruitless fatigue. The transcendental sciences admit of neither doubt nor puerility. The permissible motive of an evocation may be either love or intelligence. Evocations of love require less apparatus and are in every respect easier. The procedure is as follows. We must collect, in the first place, carefully the memorials of him-or her-whom we desire to behold, the articles he used, and on which his impression remains; we must also prepare an apartment in in which the person lived, or otherwise one of similar kind, and place his portrait veiled in white therein, surrounded with his favourite flowers, which must be renewed daily. A fixed date must then be chosen, being that of the person's birth, or one that was especially fortunate for his and our own affection, one of which we may believe that his soul, however blessed elsewhere, cannot lose the remembrance. This must be the day of evocation, and we must prepare for it during the space of two weeks. Throughout the period we must refrain from extending to anyone the same proofs of affection which we have the right to expect from the dead; we must observe strict chastity, live in retreat and take only one modest and light collation daily. Every evening at the same hour we must shut ourselves in the chamber consecrated to the memory of the lamented person, using only one small light, such as that of a funeral lamp or taper. This light should be placed behind us, the portrait should be uncovered, and we should remain before it for an hour in silence; finally, we should fumigate the apartment with a little good incense, and go out backwards. On the morning of the day fixed for the evocation, we should adorn ourselves as if for a festival, not salute anyone first, make but a single repast of bread, wine and roots, or fruits. The cloth should be white, two covers should be laid, and one portion of the broken bread should be set aside; a little wine should be placed also in the glass of the person whom we design to invoke. The meal must be eaten alone in the chamber of evocations and in presence of the veiled portrait; it must be all cleared away at the end, except the glass belonging to the dead person, and his portion of bread, which must be set before the portrait. In the evening, at the hour for the regular visit, we must repair in silence to the chamber, light a clear fire of cypress-wood and cast incense seven times thereon, pronouncing the name of the person whom we desire to behold. The lamp must then be extinguished, and the fire permitted to die out. On this day the portrait must not be unveiled., When the flame dies down, put more incense on the ashes and invoke God according to the forms of that religipn to which the dead person belonged, and according to the ideas which he himself possessed of God. While making this prayer, we must identify ourselves with the evoked person, speak as he spoke, believe in a sense as he believed. Then, after a silence of fifteen minutes, we must speak to him as if he were present, with affection and with faith, praying him to appear before us. Renew this prayer mentally, covering the face with both hands; then call him thrice with a loud voice; remain kneeling, the eyes closed or covered, for some minutes; then call again thrice upon him in a sweet and affectionate tone, and slowly open the eyes. Should nothing result, the same experiment must be renewed in the following year, and if necessary a third time, when it is certain that the desired apparition will be obtained, and the longer it has been delayed the more realistic and striking it will be.

Венера: Evocations of knowledge and intelligence are performed with more solemn ceremonies. If concerned with a cele-brated personage, we must meditate for twenty-one days upon his life and writings, form an idea of his appearance, converse with him mentally and imagine his answers. We must carry his portrait, or at least his name, about us, following a vegetarian diet for twenty-one days and a severe fast during the last seven. We must next construct the magical oratory, described in the thirteenth chapter of our "Doctrine", and see that all light is excluded therefrom. If, however, the proposed operation is to take place in the day-time, we may leave a narrow aperture on the side where the sun will shine at the hour of evocation, place a triangular prism before this, opening and a crystal globe filled with water facing the prism. If the experiment has been arranged for night, the magic lamp must be so situated that its single ray shall fall upon the altar smoke. The purpose of these preparations is to furnish the Magic Agents with elements of corporeal appearance, and to ease as much as possible the tension of imagination, which could not be exalted without danger into the absolute illusion of dream. For the rest, it will be understood easily that a beam of sunlight or the ray of a lamp co loured variously and falling upon curling and irregular smoke can in no way create a perfect image. The chafing-dish containing the sacred fire should be in the centre of the oratory and the altar of perfumes hard by. The operator must turn towards the east to pray, and the west to invoke; he must be either alone or assisted by two persons preserving the strictest silence; he must wear the magical vestments, which we have described in the seventh chapter, and must be crowned with vervain and gold. He should bathe before the operation, and all his under-garments must be of the most intact and scrupulous cleanli-ness. The ceremony should begin with a prayer suited to the genius of the spirit about to be invoked and one which would be approved by himself if he still lived. For example, it would be impossible to evoke Voltaire by reciting prayers in the style of St Bridget. For the great men of antiquity, we may use the Hymns of Cleanthes or Orpheus, with the oath terminating the Golden Verses of Pythagoras. In our evocation of Apollonius, we used the Magical Philosophy of Patricius for the Ritual, containing the doctrines of Zoroaster and the writings of Hermes Trismegistus. We recited the Nuctemeron of Apollonius in Greek with a loud voice and added a Conjuration beginning:, "Let the Father of all be Counsellor and thrice-great Hermes guide."1 For the evocation of spirits belonging to religions issued from Judaism, the following Kapalistic Invocation of Solomon should be used, either in Hebrew or in any other tongue with which the spirit in question is known to have been familiar: 1 The Conjuration referred to is given in Greek by Levi without translation and without reference to source. It is in such a corrupt state as printed that no rendering is possible except the opening words which I have given in the text above-and those of the last paragraph, namely: "Oh Apollonius, 0 Apollonius, 0 Apollonius, thou teachest the Magic of Zoroaster (follower) of Ormuzd: and this is the service of the gods." It should be remembered, above all in conjurations, that the names of Satan, Beelzebub, Adramelek and others do not designate spiritual unities but legions of impure spirits. "Our name is legion, for we are many," says the spirit of darkness in the Gospel. Number constitutes law, and progress takes place inversely in hell as the llimlain of anarchy. That is to say, the most advanced in Satanic development and consequently the most degraded and the least intelligent and feeblest. Thus, a fatal law drives demons downward when they wish and believe themselves to be ascending. So also those who term themselves chiefs are the most impotent and despised of all. As to the horde of perverse spirits, they tremble before an unknown, invisible, incomprehensible, capricious, implacable chief, who never explains his laws, whose arm is ever stretched out to strike those who' fail to understand him. They give this phantom the names of Baal, Jupiter and even others more venerable, which cannot, without profanation, be pronounced in hell. But this phantom is only the shadow and remnant of God, disfigured by wilful perversity, and persisting in imagination like a visitaiont of justice and a remorse of truth.

Венера: When the evoked spirit of light manifests with sad or irritated countenance, we must offer him a moral sacrifice, that is, be inwardly disposed to renounce whatever offends him; and before leaving the oratory, we must dismiss him, saying: "May peace be with thee! I have not wished to trouble thee; do thou torment me not. I shall labour to improve myself as to anything that vexes thee. I pray and will still pray, with thee and for thee. Pray thou also both with and for me, and return to thy great slumber, expecting that day when we shall awake together. Silence and adieu!" We must not dose this chapter without giving some details on Black Magic for the benefit of the curious. The practices of Thessalian sorcerers and Roman Canidias are described by several ancient authors. In the first place, a pit was dug, at the mouth of which they cut the throat of a black sheep; the psyllae and larvae presumed to be present, and swarming round to drink the blood, were driven off with the magic sword; the triple Hecate and the infernal gods were evoked, and the phantom whose apparition was desired was called upon three times. In the Middle Ages, necromancers violated tombs, composing philtres and unguents with the fat and blood of corpses combined with aconite, belladonna and poisonous fungi. They boiled and skimmed these frightful compounds over fires fed with human bones and crucifixes stolen from churches; they added dust of dried toads and ash of consecrated hosts; they anointed their temples, hands, and breasts with the infernal unguent, traced diabolical Pantades, evoked the dead beneath gibbets or in deserted graveyards. Their how lings were heard from afar, and' belated travellers imagined that legions of phantoms rose out of the earth. The very trees, in their eyes, assumed appalling shapes; fiery orbs gleamed in the thickets; frogs in the marshes seemed to echo mysterious words of the Sabbath with croaking voices. It was the magnetism of hallucination and the contagion of madness. The end of procedure in Black Magic was to disturb reason and produce the feverish excitement which em-boldens to great crimes. The Grimoires, once seized and burnt by authority everywhere, are certainly not harmless books. Sacrilege, murder, theft, are indicated or hinted as means to realization in almost all these works. Thus, in the Grand Grimoire and its modern version the Red Dragon, there is a recipe entitled "Composition of Death, or Philosophical Stone", a broth of aqua fortis, copper, arsenic and verdigris. There are also necromantic processes, com-prising the tearing up of earth from graves with the nails, dragging out bones, placing them crosswise on the breast, then assisting at midnight mass on Christmas eve, and flying out of the church at the moment of consecration, crying: "Let the dead rise from their tombs!" Thereafter the procedure involves returning to the graveyard, taking a handful of earth nearest to the coffin, running back to the door of the church, which has been alarmed by the damour, depositing the two bones crosswise and again shouting: "Let the dead rise from their tombs!" If the operator escapes being seized and shut up in a madhouse, he must retire at a slow pace, and count four thousand five hundred steps in a straight line, which means following a broad road or scaling walls. Having traversed this space, he lies down upon the earth, as if in a coffin, and repeats in lugubrious tones: "Let the dead rise from their tombs!" Finally, he calls thrice on the person whose apparition is desired. No doubt anyone who is mad enough and wicked enough to abandon himself to such operations is predisposed to all chimeras and all phantoms. Hence the recipe of the Grand Grimoire is most efficacious, but we advise none of our readers to test it.

Венера: The Study of Death Death magics have been around for as long as humans have grasped the concept of using magic of any form. Even the most basic division of magics must include a segment for that which is known as Necromancy. Though Necromancy currently has a functional etymology to it, this was not always the case. In the medieval ages, "Necromancy" was called "Nigromancy", meaning "Black Magic" (interpreted as that which harms the person). Later on, as "Nigromancy" came to be altered into "Necromancy" through Greek and Italian influences, the art gained a new face. Now, instead of simply being an art of injuring the human, it came to also be associated with graves, graveyards, spirits, and primarily of channelling dead spirits like a medium and working with The Angel of Death and heavily influenced by Catholicism and ritual myth or superstitious beliefs about bodies of the dead. These associations, however, are clearly tainted by the early overwhelming dominance of Christian and Catholic thought, which turned the art into an "evil" sacrilege. As such, the beauty of the original Necromancies had been temporarily lost. As time has progressed and information may now be more freely shared across the internet, the new breed of Necromancer is capable of once again delving into the secrets of death and of illness, as before. There is a quote floating around on the internet which fully expresses this new freedom by reflecting on past oppression: "Once there was a time when all people believed in God and the church ruled. This time is called the Dark Ages." Now that information can be freely spread, trends in the use of death magic can be seen and formed into a new and pure art of death magic once more with the creeds and cantrips left at the door. In contrast to the Healer, the Necromancer embraces those powers which kill, decay, and decrepidate, and attempts to put them to use. This power goes by many names, but primarily among true Necromancers as Death Essence. It is the power which kills, harms, and causes decay, and that which is of foremost interest to the practitioner of these death magics. The Necromancer runs into a dilemma while using these essences, however. Regardless how one may try, the fact of the matter is that even Necromancers are living breathing human beings. As such, not even the seasoned practitioner can escape the baneful effects that these energies have on the body. Advanced aging, hair loss, sallow skin, and a gaunt complexion are all traits which are associated (in varying degrees) with the seasoned practitioner. Though the effects may only manifest as internal pains, as well, the fact is that to gain power in this art requires that suffering be present. The Necromancer's sacrifice for power is often scorned or considered madness, but for the practitioner it is worth the pain. To gather a sufficient sum of energy, the pain of the Necromancer's own suffering is channelled into a Necromantic Curse, or into a Servitor Summoning. These two components are the basis of every Necromantic spell. Traditionally, the entire art of Necromancy has been broken down into these two branches. The most infamous aspect of necromancy, without doubt, is the creation of phantasmals and undeads. The less flashy but more used aspect is the direct application of the death essences in curses, the imbuement of fetishes, and the decrepitation of organic entities. Addressing the problem of personal decrepidation, however, there rose a spin-off skill of necromancy: vampiric magic. Vampiric magic is a particular fringe skill of Necromancy focussed on helping the necromancer survive the ordeals of coming in contact with death essences. Instead of simply locking down and bearing the ill effects of death magic, Vampiric magics were born to shoulder some of the weight by allowing a degree of rejuvenation as well as the effects of necromancy to coexist. Only this much is the truth behind vampire tales and the vampire cults that exist around the world. Though there are no "vampires", per se, there are those necromancers that have refined the ability to use death to drain from the life forces of others. The precise means of doing this is up to the caster to discover but, through absorption of the life forces of other creatures, the necromancer can waylay many of the adverse effects of their art and retain a relatively normal degree of health and well-being at the expense of others. Though there is no proof that this kind of magic can actually extend life beyond the normal duration, it has shown the power to counteract the negative effects of using death magics and to allow the practitioner to live normally. Historically, vampiric magic has taken many different forms. There are those that have consumed real blood in attempts to drain life, based on ideas as far back as the Bible's statement that ".. the life of the flesh is in the blood" (Lev. 17:11), sexual vampires (hearkening to Aristotle's claim that life is in the sexual fluids of either gender), and those that drain life force purely, somewhat reminiscient of the breathism and psychic vampire traditions1. Note that vampiric necromancy does not mean you're a vampire, but is an appropriate metaphor for the nature of this skill.

Венера: A common mistake to make when attempting to utilize the direct applications of Necromancy is to get caught up in thinking of the effect. If the effect, for example, is to make a person go blind, the most common mistake is for the would-be Necromancer to attempt to try and "think" a person blind. Necromancy, as with all the other castes on The Library of Knowledge, contrasts from the Ritual Magicks because of its use of a) a distinct energy type, and b) a distinct methodology in using that unique energy. The would-be Necromancer's most common grief is that they can't "Think Blind" or "Think Sick" someone. The key is in keeping your mind on methods, not effects, and in working the methods of necromancy into an occult science. For example, as one may wish to use the blindness spell, there are a few ways to do it. All ways, however, require one to plan their spell out. That, by definition, is what makes a spell a spell. It's a mystical blueprint for the methods of magic. If I wanted to cause blindness, given that Death Essence is the energy a Necromancer works with, the most easy and obvious way to do this is load the eyes of your target with sufficient death energies. The absorption technique outlined on the Beginning 2 page works for Death Essence as well, and its the Necromancer's own pain and decay from absorbing these energies that is channelled into the target. It is much more complex than this example if one literally intends on striking someone blind, but the principles are there. The minor backlash the Necromancer receives throughout their entire body, however, is diminutive compared to the effect of channelling such a vast energy into a concentrated area of a target. With enough effort, this spell will cause permanent blindness, or with a bit of manipulation can deviate to cataracts or optical cancers. Kept in its undeveloped stages, which is sometimes preferable, the Necromancer can blur, dim, or outright blind whomever they choose (though never without consequence). Other effects are attainable by using the very same energy in different configurations and places on your target, and altering properties of the energy's performance slightly. Blanket-effect spells are also possible, though they drain more from the Necromancer due to the greater amount of energy needed. Aside from the direct application of death energies to an organic being, however, there is also the unique ability to congeal the essences into a form or shape, thus allowing the famous Undeads and Phantasmal servitors. Legends of the Zombie, Wraith, and Skeleton have been attached to necromancy for as long as it has gone by that name. Visions of the Dead and other such strange phenomenon have been attributed as commonplace to the Necromancer in myth and fable, often making the Necromancer seem insensitive, evil, and morbid. These creatures are used, however, in a manner that shows clearly a Necromancer understands the undead's psychological effect fully and that the caster truly feels and appreciates the terror in them. The existence of undead creations of a Necromancer are not fable, yet a few misconceptions of their origin, nature, and ability have arisen. As for origin, it should be noted that Necromancers are not able, nor have they ever been able, to raise the physical bodies of the dead to reanimation in any way, shape, or form. The flesh that has died is dead forever, and that is all there is to it. No amount of spellcraft can return the physical dead to physical animation again, for love, or will, or power. The Necromantic Undead is a creation of the caster's own mind as the result of concentration. Things such as form and motion are consciously preordained by the necromancer and are constructed in much the same way as an elemental servitor might be. Thought-forms given shape and empowered with the death essence may serve the caster in much the same way as a demon might, or some other independent intelligence, with the one exception that these servants are directly controlled by the caster and have no decision making ability outside of the caster's conscious guidance. These undead or phantasmal servants are given form purely as the Necromancer shapes them - usually in the form of grotesque terrors of the mind -- and move, exist, or operate only as the controlling caster deems fit. They are unreal, in the sense of being self-sufficient or substantial, and are necessarily a hallucinogenic projection. As with any spell, the skill lies in the Necromancer's ability to manipulate these creatures to perform with some similitude of fluid movement. After they have served a purpose, concentration may be broken and the ethereal construct can vaporise. There are many more surprises to be found in the art of necromancy, but at a price. Success is met with personal anguish and the price of victory - pain. There is no way to sidestep the long hours of hard practice necessary to make this art work, but in the end it is the Necromancer who twists the death ethers to their will and stands as the scholar of magic and master of their own destiny.

Венера: Graveyards In past practices of necromancy the practitioner felt it necessary to use the bodies of the dead to force the spirit to return, and communicate with those that summoned it from it's realm. Among some of the haunts on a necromancer where cross roads, battlefields, and graveyards. C ross roads where selected due to there alleged link with the spirit realm. Often criminals where hung at cross roads in Europe. Generally though the problem with the cross roads is the lack of a corpse this would mean the body of the dead would have to be brought from it's resting place to where the ritual's where to be preformed. Battlefields provided a superb location to find corpses with one small set back, where there was a battlefield there was a war. It was one thing wanting to speak to the dead, but it was quite another risking the chance of becoming deceased by a hostile act of war. So by far the best and safest place to acquire a dead body was from one of the many surrounding graveyards. . . . Not just any graveyard would be suitable for the needs of the necromancer, as being able to hide ones acts was most important. For this reason sites with crypt's where generally sought out. Even if the body of the person who deceased was not buried in a crypt it would take little effort to dig up the remains, and transport them to a suitable crypt during the hours of darkness. There are other reasons besides remaining undetected for choosing a crypt. Another concern was that of shelter. The crypts not only provided a door to keep the rituals private from unforeseen guests, but would also provide a home for the necromancer, and his assistant during the lengthy art of raising the dead. For some practitioners of necromancy the graveyard was only considered to be a shopping centre where they could pick and choose the cadavers, and there tools of the trade. These persons for what ever reason didn't practice there art where the bodies where buried. Whether they didn't feel secure in a public place, or they felt the need to separate the body from its resting place. In modern times anyone caught desecrating a gravesite in such a manner would be arrested, andheld accountable for there actions in a court of law. Where a jail sentence would be handed down by the judge. In the Middle ages anyone caught doing these acts might be decapitated. Perhaps that's one law that should of not been changed.

Венера: Rituals There where two main forms of necromancy practiced during the middle ages in Europe for the purpose of this article we will only be dealing with the practitioners that used corpse in there rituals. The other form of necromancy is still in use today and information concerning that practice can be found in our modern necromancy section. To be able to command the dead to speak was considered by many a practitioner of this art as the peak of there magical abilities. The ritual would commence nine days before the actual act of speaking with the dead occurred. During this time the necromancer and assistant would seclude themselves from human contact especially the contact of woman. The starting of the ritual would be getting dressed for the occasion. For this, the people practicing this art would wear cloths stolen from graves. They felt it necessary to get as close to the dead as they could. If possible they would also sleep with the cadaver they planed to raise, but for this to occur a secure setting was needed like a sealed catacomb. After the location was deemed safe and all precautions where in place to not arise attention to there actions the next item needed was food. The food eaten during this lengthy ritual was mainly unsalted dog meat. Now besides most people not caring to eat dog the main problem was the lack of salt. Remember these rituals where preformed in times when salt was used to preserve meats. Refrigeration was not known back then. For the next eight days the practitioners would practice there rites, prayers, burn, and inhale hallucinogenic incenses, and do what ever else they seen fit to bring them closer to the spirits they desired to contact. The incenses they used for these rites where not only mind altering, but also deadly, and many a ritual would be ended permanently by inhaling these substances. If by chance the necromancer did not die from botulism, or an overdose of narcotics the ritual would start around midnight. Elaborate circles where drawn around both the dead, and the place the participants planed to stand. Again more incenses where burned, and the body of the deceased was placed inside its circle sealing the spirit that the necromancer was attempting to raise from escaping. The necromancer and apprentice, or assistant would then enter there respective circle. Prayers would be spoken for protection against the spirit of the dead, and prayers to force the spirit to reinhabit its former body. If all went successful the departed spirit would once again animate its body, and rise to meet those who have conjured it. This by no means was thought to be a pleasant experience for the spirit involved, and often the necromancer had to take steps to keep the spirit at bay. Now that the practitioners where successful in raising a spirit the next step was to communicate with the dead. This was done with questions, and answers, for whatever the reason the spirit was forced back to the world of the living it was now when the necromancer would find out if the information sought after would be provided. More often than not the reasons then for speaking to the dead where for either, money (the location of hidden treasures), or knowledge only the dead could provide. The spirit would then be released back to its realm at this point if the necromancer felt the information provided was accurate, and reliable. It was a common belief in the middle ages that a body was needed for its spirit to return to the world of the living. So as a reward for providing proper information to the necromancer the spirits discarded body would be destroyed so to never be used again in raising that spirit from its resting place. .

Венера: Tools of the Trade Past practices in the arts of necromancy where heavily influenced by complex rituals, and peculiar trinkets. The one found in almost all ancient practices is the corpse. The necromancers felt the spirit would return to fresh corpses (ones less than a year old) for the purpose of communication with the living. This was something the spirit never did by its own will, and had to be manipulated or forced to return to its former body. Those that didn't care for the thought of hanging around places of death, or exhuming graves would use a skull during the ritual to summon the spirit. It was treated in the same manner as a corps for it was the spirit that the practitioner needed protection from not the container the spirit manifested in. For the necromancers safety the circle was the prime means of defence. The circle had two purposes the first being a barrier to keep the summoned spirit inside, and the second being a protective circle surrounding the necromancer and assistant in case the spirit broke free from its barrier. The circles used in this art of raising the dead where constructed in the same manner as the protective circles found in the Keys of Solomon. After the circles where constructed, and blessed the next tool to be employed by the necromancer was incense. A mixture of various narcotics where used including: belladonna, mandrake, henbane, opium, among others. This combination of herbs has no doubt been the cause of more practitioners of this art joining there sought after spirits than any means of death. For information on what the chemicals in these herbs are capable of see our Botany section. An in depth article on belladonna can be found under the flying potion link on that page. Now that the practitioner, and his assistant have inhaled enough herbal smoke to put them literally on deaths door the next tool required is the wand. This item was generally made of bone, and serves two purposes the first is to conjure, or force the spirit back into its body so communication can commence. Secondly the wand acts as a blasting rod to send the spirit back to where it came from. This is used if the ceremony does not go as directed by the practitioner, or the spirit starts gaining control of the ritual. The last main thing needed by practitioners of the ancient art of necromancy is wood, or quicklime. The necromancers of that time believed the spirit could only be summoned if there body was still intact. So if the spirit was particularly helpful in what the necromancer required from it, the corpse would either be burned, or buried in quicklime. This was to prevent any others from ever disturbing this particular spirit again.

Венера: JWs and Necromancy JWs from the beginning of their movement have spoken out against the spiritistic practice of communicating with the spirits of the dead. This form of spiritism was popular in the late 1880's to the early 1900's. The name for this form of spiritism is necromancy. In stating their official opposition to necromancy the Society has pointed out that the Bible in such places as Deut. 18 condemns all forms of spiritism including necromancy. They have published much on this through the years. In addition to the Biblical statements against the practice they have appealed to their belief in the doctrine of "soul sleep" or "annihilationism" as proving that a person can not communicate with the dead since the Bible, they believe, teaches that the dead are unconscious or "asleep" and thus can not communicate with anyone. Those who claim therefore to being in communication with the spirits of the dead are actually talking with demons, they say. For example, Rutherford wrote an article titled "Talking With the Dead(?)" which appeared in the first Golden Age magazine in 1919. In it he mentions those who were well known at the time for their belief and involvement in necromancy. He said: Sir Authur Conan Doyle, a positive witness that the living communicate with the dead (?), has written much on the subject. It will be noticed that the messages which purport to come from the dead come through a medium. [1] Rutherford believed that Doyle and others were unBiblical in 'talking with the dead' by appealing to his belief in soul sleep, that is, the belief that the dead are unconscious until the resurrection. He then quotes several Scriptures (Psalms 6:5; 88:10, 11; 90: 3; 115: 17; 146:4; Ecclesiastes 9:5, 10) and then comments that: These Scriptures, then, prove conclusively (and there is none to contradict them) that man has not an immortal soul; that man is not a spirit being but a human; that man when he dies is dead and is not conscious; therefore could not possibly communicate with any who are living.[2] His conclusion as to who the spirits are that communicate with humans through mediums was: ... instead of this being the work or voices of departed men, we answer that the voices and works are those of demons who never were men,... [3] This is the typical manner they have answered the claims of spiritists who believe in necromancy and supposedly the Bible at the same time. However, this stated opposition to necromancy does not mean that the Society inoculated itself against the activity, or that they have not, in fact, engaged in their own form of necromancy

Венера: The Faithful and Wise Servant is Dead! On Halloween (Oct. 31) of 1916 C. T. Russell the "faithful and wise servant," as he was called died. This posed a problem for his followers. Since the 'new light' or meat in due season came only through the faithful servant according to their theology, and he was now deceased, did this mean that no new light was to be expected? Would they now have to be content with "old light" and keep printing this until Kingdom come (literally!)? This came to a head for some when Rutherford, in 1917, by then the Society's president, had the book The Finished Mystery published as the posthumous work of Russell. This, among other Rutherford moves, led to some splits in the organization with some leaving and forming their own sects (such as The Layman's Home Missionary Movement). The Society's justifications for the Finished Mystery are interesting and bring up some fundamental problems I have with their whole theology relating to 'meat in due season' from God through 'that servant.' For the purposes of this article I will look at one of these justifications. In the Finished Mystery book they promoted a form of necromancy as a solution to the above stated dilemma. On page 256 they said: The three days of terrible darkness over the land of Egypt may represent three years of the great war, and indicate its close shortly after the publication of this final witness of the church... Pastor Russell passed forever out of reach of the antitypical Pharaoh, Satan, in the fall of 1916.... we hold that he supervises, by the Lord's arrangement, the work yet to be done. [Emphasis mine] Here, one year after Russell's death, the Society said The Finished Mystery is to be the final witness before the end and that Russell is still supervising their work even though he is dead! How could he do this since they taught, as briefly documented above, that the dead are unconscious and thus can not possibly communicate with the living? First Resurrection in 1878 Russell taught that the resurrection of the "sleeping saints" started in 1878. This was not viewed as a visible, bodily resurrection, but a spiritual resurrection to heaven. All those of the anointed class who died beginning in 1878 were resurrected to heaven upon death. Those of this class who died prior to this time such as the Apostles were also resurrected in 1878. The Finished Mystery as well promoted this belief. On page 182, for example, they said: ... in the spring of 1878 all the holy Apostles and other 'overcomers' of the Gospel Age who slept in Jesus were raised spirit beings,...

Венера: Thus, when Russell died in 1916, he was immediately resurrected as a "god", a "divine being." From heaven this god was "supervising" the Society's work! On page 144 of The Finished Mystery they again stated their belief that the now "spirit being" C. T. Russell was directing their work from beyond the grave: ... though Pastor Russell has passed beyond the veil, he is managing every feature of the harvest work. In the November 1, 1917 Watch Tower they also said: This work is conducted by the WATCH TOWER BIBLE AND TRACT SOCIETY, a corporation organized for that purpose by Pastor Russell years ago, and which, without doubt, was organized under the Lord's direction, and which was managed and directed by Pastor Russell until his death.... Hence our dear Pastor, now in glory, is without doubt, manifesting a keen interest in the Harvest work, and is permitted by the Lord to exercise some strong influence thereupon. (Revelation 14:17) It is not unreasonable to conclude that he has been privileged to do, in connection with the Harvest work, things which he could not do while with us. Although we recognize that the Lord is the great Master and Director of the Harvest, yet we recognize that He would privilege the saints beyond the veil to have a part in the work on this side; and thus all the saints, both in Heaven and upon earth, are now given the honor of concluding the work on this side, preparatory to the full establishment of the Kingdom of Glory. [4] Thus, not only was Russell directing the Society, but all the "saints" beyond the veil! This is a somewhat unusual form of necromancy, but it is necromancy in the sense of promoting the involvement of dead "saints" to direct the living on earth. How Russell directed them from beyond the grave they never explained. I seriously doubt that the Society's leaders such as Rutherford held seances at the Society's headquarters to contact the spirits of Russell and the Apostles to see what they were to do next. This doctrine sounds more like the Catholic doctrine that the living faithful can pray to the "saints" for help than the traditional form of necromancy such as the 'witch of Endor' variety. At least one other critic of the Society came to a similar conclusion. In a 1924 Golden Age they printed this person's objections to Society beliefs including this subject. As recorded in the Golden Age his statements were as follows: "In Volume VII, STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES, page 161, Revelation 9:13, referring to the Adventists, in connection with other Protestant churches, the statement is made, 'The common ground on which they stand is this, their affirmation of spiritism in some form.' The writer is not an Adventist, nor affiliated with any church; but he believes in fairness. It seems to him that Adventism, which maintains that all the dead are still unconscious in the grave, leaves the field less open to spiritist delusions than does your doctrine, which declares that, since 1878, the righteous dead are conscious spirits; for in another place you disclose with great particularity [in "Spiritism" and "Talking With the Dead"] how the fallen angels have almost unlimited powers to impersonate even the righteous dead. It occurs to this writer that this doctrine also exposes the believer to lying telepathic communications from the living. It resembles strikingly the Roman Catholic belief that only a few of the dead, the saints, etc., have any communication with the living." [5] Here the opposer to the Society's position correctly, in my view, states that their doctrine of the "saints" being resurrected to heaven since 1878 (together with the view that Russell was directing their work from there) opened them up to a form of necromancy and was similar to the Catholic view of the Saints. The Society's response was as follows:

Венера: The ground for including the Adventists in those tainted with spiritism has reference to their acceptance some years ago of the delusions of "Mother White," and not to their sound theology on the question that the dead are dead. However, the doctrine that the dead do really die does not in any way interfere with the doctrine of the resurrection.... This is the case with all the saints who fell asleep in death prior to 1878. Since then we understand that we are living in a special season when the overcomers are, at death, "changed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye" (1 Corinthians 15:52) and do not need to remain asleep in death. But our doctrine would forbid any intercourse with any of these; indeed, none of the Lord's people would undertake it. [6] They deny that this doctrine of a post&endash;1878 spiritual resurrection etc. opens them up to spiritism and say their doctrine forbids it and none would attempt such. This is not completely true. Their doctrine of being directed by the spirits of the dead from heaven [especially Russell] is a form of necromancy by definition. It is a fact also that at least one Bible Student did take these doctrines to heart and did communicate with a spirit that claimed to be Russell! Russell Dead, But Speaking Again The Society responded to this person's claim in the article Demons Entrap a London Ex-Elder in the January 1, 1934 Golden Age. Speaking of someone who was formerly an "elective elder" in the London congregation they said: He imagines that he is receiving spirit messages from Charles Taze Russell, first president of the International Bible Students Association; as a matter of fact he is taking messages from a fallen angel that for centuries has been getting his principal enjoyment in making fools out of humans. [7] They claim the spirit that communicated with the man was a fallen angel (not of the "honest" variety) because he gave him false doctrines; doctrines that Russell himself never taught. They therefore, unlike their endorsement of Angels and Women, these messages from a fallen angel were not "exceedingly interesting and sometimes thrilling," but were instead "characteristic demonic expressions." It was not "thoroughly in accord with the correct interpretation of certain scriptures" like J. G. Smith's spirit messages. After giving examples of such false Biblical interpretations they further pointed out the demons were careless in their use of English: Flirting with the witch of Endor, and other witches since, has made the demons careless in the use of pronouns; sixteen errors in four pages of manuscript are too many, even for an unclean and fallen spirit. [8] I do not know who this person was that made these claims. The article doesn't identify him. I assume that he was open to necromancy based on previous Watchtower statements as the 'opposer' warned might happen ten years earlier. He opened himself up to lying communications from the "dead." Whether this was done "telepathically" or through a medium, I do not know. This person apparently did not follow their 1924 statement that their doctrine forbids such communication. Later in 1934, perhaps as a result of this, Rutherford wrote the following clear-cut denunciation of trying to communicate with Russell or any other dead "saint." He denounced the belief that the dead were directing the Society's work. This appeared in the May 1 Watchtower and in his book Jehovah. There he said: All at the temple will realize that their spiritual food comes to them from their Teachers, Jehovah and Christ Jesus, and not from any man. No one will be so foolish as to conclude that some brother (or brethren) at one time amongst them, and who has died and gone to heaven, is now instructing the saints on earth and directing them as to their work.[9] Rutherford may be correct in calling such beliefs "foolish" but it was he who had the Finished Mystery published that promoted the idea that "some brother", who died and went to heaven, namely Russell, was directing those on earth. His clear rejection in 1934 of this did not end the matter of the Society itself, let alone those with the dreaded "elective elder spirit," promoting the idea that the dead are communicating truth to those on earth. In recent years they have seemingly "resurrected" the idea.

Венера: Necromancy Resurrected? In the 1988 book Revelation&endash;Its Grand Climax at Hand! they say on page 125: This suggests that the resurrected ones of the 24&endash;elders group may be involved in the communicating of divine truths today. Thus they currently teach that the departed spirits of the anointed class "may be involved in the communicating of divine truths today" to those on earth. Again, I seriously doubt that the Governing Body is today holding seances during their meetings. However, it is still official doctrine that the dead leaders of JWs "may be" involved with sending divine truths to the anointed on earth. As before they do not say how they may deliver the information to those on earth. NECROMANCY Or divination by means of the spirits of the dead, from the Greek work `nekos', dead; and `manteria', divination. It is through its Italian form nigromancia that it came to be known as the "Black Art". With the Greeks it originally signified the descent into Hades in order to consult the dead rather than summoning the dead into the mortal sphere again. The art is of almost universal usage. Considerable difference of opinion exists among modern adepts as to the exact methods to be properly pursued in the necromantic art, and it must be borne in mind the necromancy, which in the Middle Ages was called sorcery, shades into modern spiritualistic practice. There is no doubt, however, that necromancy is the touchstone of occultism, for if, after careful preparation the adept can carry through to a successful issue, the raising of the soul from the other world, he has proved the value of his art. It would be fruitless in this place to enter into a psychological discussion as to whether the feat is possible of accomplishment or not, and we will confine ourselves tit he material which has been placed at our disposal by the sages of the past, who have left full details as to how the process should be approached. In the case of a compact between the conjuror and the devil, no ceremony is necessary, as the familiar is ever at hand to do the behests of his masters. This, however, is never the case with the true sorcerer, who preserves his independence, and trusts to his profound knowledge of the art and his powers of command; his object therefore is to 'constrain' some spirit to appear before him, and to guard himself from the danger of provoking such beings. The magician, it must be understood, always has an assistant, and every article named is prepared according to rules well known in the black art. In the first place, they are to fix upon a spot proper for such purpose; which must be either in a subterraneous vault, hung around with black, and lighted by a magical torch; or else in the center of some thick wood or desert, or upon some extensive, unfrequented plain, where several roads meet, or amidst the ruins of ancient castles, abbeys, monasteries, etc., or amongst the rocks on the sea shore, in some private detached churchyard, or any other solemn, melancholy place between the hours of twelve and one in the night, either when the moon shines very bright, or else when the elements are disturbed with storms, thunder, lightning, wind, and rain; for, in these places, times, and seasons, it is contended that spirits can with less difficulty manifest themselves to mortal eyes, and continue visible with the least pain, in this elemental external world. When the proper time and place is fixed on, a magic circle is to be formed, within which, the master and his associate are carefully to retire. The dimensions of the circle are as follow: - A piece of ground is usually chosen, nine feet square, at the full extent of which parallel lines are drawn within the other, having sundry crosses and triangles described between them, close to which is formed the first or outer circle, then, about half-a-foot within the same, a second circle is described, and within that another square correspondent to the first, the center of which is the seat of spot where the master and associate are to be placed. "The vacancies formed by the various lines and angles of the figure are filled up with the holy names of God, having crosses and triangles described between them. The reason assigned by magicians and others for this institution and use of circles, is, that so much ground being blessed and consecrated by such holy words and ceremonies as they make use of forming it, hath a secret force to expel all evil spirits from the bounds thereof, and, being sprinkled with pure, sanctified water, the ground is purified from all uncleanliness; besides, the holy names of God being written over every part of it, its force becomes so powerful that no evil spirit hath ability to break through it, or to get at the magician and his companion, by reason of the antipathy in nature they bear to these sacred names. And the reason given for the triangles is, that if the spirit be not easily brought to speak the truth, they may by the exorcist be conjured to enter the same, where, by virtue of the names of the essence and divinity of God, they can speak nothing but what is true and right. The circle, therefore, according to this account of it, is the principal fort and shield of the magician, from which he is not, at the peril of his life, to depart, till he has completely dismissed the spirit, particularly if he be of a fiery or infernal nature. Instances are recorded of many who perished by the means, particularly Chiancungi, the famous Egyptian fortune-teller, who was so famous in England in the seventeenth century. He undertook a wager, to raise up the spirit "Bokim", and having described the circle, he seated his sister Napula by him as his associate. After frequently repeating the forms of exorcism, and calling upon the spirit to appear, and nothing as yet answering his demand, they grew impatient of the business, and quitted the circle, but it cost them their lives; for they were instantaneously seized and crushed to death by that infernal spirit, who happened not to be sufficiently constrained till that moment, to manifest himself to human eyes."

Венера: There was a prescribed form of consecrating the magic circle, which we omit as unnecessary in a general illustration. The proper attire or "pontificalibus" of a magician is an ephod made of fine white linen, over that a priestly robe of black bombazine, reaching to the ground, with the two seals of the earth drawn correctly upon virgin parchment, and affixed to the breast of the outer vestment. Round his waist is tied a broad consecrated girdle, with the names Ya, Ya, - Aie, Aaie, - Elibra, - Sadai, - Pah Adonai, - tuo robore, - Cintus sum. Upon his shoes must be written Tetragammaton, with crosses round about; upon his head a high-crowned cap of sable silk, and in his hand a Holy Bible, printed or written in pure Hebrew. Thus attired, and standing within the charmed circle, the magician repeats the awful form of exorcism; and presently, the infernal spirits make strange and frightening noises, howlings, tremblings, flashes, and most dreadful shrieks and yells, as a forerunner of their becoming visible. Their first appearance in the form of fierce and terrible lions or tigers, vomiting forth fire, and roaring hideously about the circle; all which time the exorcist must not suffer any tremor of dismay; for, in that case, they will gain the ascendancy, and the consequences may touch his life. On the contrary, he must summon up a share of resolution, and continue repeating the forms of constriction and confinement, until they are drawn nearer to the influence of the triangle, when their forms will change to appearances less ferocious and frightful, and become more submissive and tractable. When the forms of conjuration have in this manner been sufficiently repeated, the spirits forsake their bestial shapes, and enter the human form, appearing like naked men of gentle countenance and behavior, yet is the magician to be warily on his guard that they 844 deceive him not by much wild gestures, for they are exceedingly fraudulent and deceitful in their dealings with those who constrain them to appear without compact, having nothing in view but to suborn his mind, or accomplish his destruction. With great care also must the spirit be discharged after the ceremony is finished, as he has answered all the demands made upon him. The magician must wait patiently till he has passed through all the terrible forms which announce his coming, and only when the last shriek has died away, after every trace of fire and brimstone has disappeared, may he leave the circle and depart home in safety. IF the ghost of deceased person is to be raised, the grave must be resorted to at midnight, and a different form of conjuration is necessary. Still another, is the infernal sacrament for "any corpse that hath hanged, drowned, or otherwise made away with itself"; and in this case the conjurations are performed over the body, which will at last rise, and standing upright, answer with a faint and hollow voice the questions that are put to it. Eliphas Levi, in his `Ritual of Transcendent Magic' says that "evocations should always have a motive and a becoming end, otherwise the are works of darkness and folly, dangerous for health and reason." The permissible motive of an evocation may be either love or intelligence. Evocations of love require less apparatus and are in every respect easier. The procedure is as follows: "We must, in the first place, carefully collect the memorials of him (or her) whom we desire to behold, the articles he used, and on which his impressions remains; we must also prepare an apartment in which the person lived, or otherwise, one of similar kind, and place his portrait veiled in white therein, surrounded with his favorite flowers, which must be renewed daily. A fixed date must then be observed, either the birthday of the person, or that day which was most fortunate for his and our own affection, one of which we may believe that his soul, however blessed elsewhere, cannot lose the remembrance; this must be the day for the evocation and we must provide for it during the space of fourteen days. Throughout this period we must refrain from extending to anyone the same proofs of affection which we have the right to expect from the dead; we must observe strict chastity, live in retreat, and take only modest and light collation daily. Every evening at the same hour we must shut ourselves in the chamber consecrated to the memory of the lamented person, using only one small light, such as that of a funeral lamp or taper. This light should be placed behind us, the portrait should be uncovered and we should remain before it for an hour, in silence; finally, we should fumigate the apartment with a little good incense, and go out backwards. On the morning of the day fixed for the evocation, we should adorn ourselves as if for a festival, not salute anyone first, make but a single repast of bread, wine, and roots, or fruits; the cloth should be white, two covers should be laid, and one portion of the bread broken should be set aside; a little wine should also be placed in the glass of the person we design to invoke. The meal must be eaten alone in the chamber of evocations, and in the presence of the veiled portrait; it must be all cleared away at the end, except the glass belonging to the dead person, and his portion of bread, which must be placed before the portrait. In the evening, at the hour for the regular visit, we must repair in silence to the chamber, light a fire of cypress wood, and cast incense seven times thereon, pronouncing the name of the person whom we desire to behold. The lamp must then be extinguished, and the fire permitted to die out. On this day the portrait must not be unveiled. When the flame is extinct, put more incense on the ashes, and invoke God according to the forms of the religion to which the dead person belonged, and according to the ideas which he himself possessed of God. While making this prayer we must identify ourselves with the evoked person, speak as he spoke, believe in a sense as he believed; then, after a silence of fifteen minutes, we must speak to him as if he were present, with affection and with faith, praying him to manifest to us. Renew this prayer mentally, covering the face with both hands; then call him thrice with a loud voice; tarry on our knees, the eyes closed and covered, for some minutes; then call again thrice upon him in a sweet and affectionate tone, and slowly open the eyes. Should nothing result, the same experiment must be renewed in the following year, and if necessary a third time, when it is certain that the desired apparition will be obtained, and the longer it has been delayed the more realistic and striking it will be. "Evocations of knowledge and intelligence are made with more solemn ceremonies. If concerned with a celebrated personage, we must meditate for twenty-one days upon his life and writings, form an idea of his appearance, converse with him mentally, and imagine his answers; carry his portrait, or at least his name, about us; follow a vegetable diet for twenty-one days, and a severe fast during the last seven. We must next construct the magical oratory. This oratory must be invariably darkened; but if we operate in the daytime, we may leave a narrow aperture on the side where the sun will shine at the hour of the evocation, and place a triangular prism before the opening, and a crystal globe, filled with water, before the prism. If the operation be arranged for the night the magic lamp must be so placed that its single ray shall be upon the alter smoke. The purpose of the preparations is to furnish the magic agent with elements of corporeal appearance, and to ease as much as possible the tension of imagination, which could not be exalted without danger into the absolute illusion of dream. for the rest, it will be easily understood that a beam of sunlight, or the ray of a lamp, colored variously, and falling upon curling and irregular smoke, can in no way create a perfect image. The chafing-dish containing the sacred fire should be in the center of the oratory, and the alter of perfumes close by. The operator must turn toward the east to pray, and the west to invoke; he must be either alone or assisted by two persons preserving the strictest silence; he must wear the magical vestments, which we have described in the seventh chapter (of Levi`s "Ritual of Transcendent Magic"), and must be crowned with vervain and gold. He should bathe before the operation, and all his under garments must be of the most intact and scrupulous cleanliness. The ceremony should begin with a prayer suited to the genius of the spirit about to be invoked and one which would be approved by him if he still lived. For example, it would be impossible to evoke Voltaire by reciting prayers in the style of St. Bridget. For the great men of antiquity, we may see the hymns of Cleathes or Orpheus, with the adjuration terminating the Golden Venus of Pythagoras. In our own evocation of Apollonius, we used the magical philosophy of Patricius for the ritual, containing the doctrines of Zoroaster and the writings of Hermes Trismegistus. We recited the Nuctemeron of Apollonius in greek with a loud voice and added the following conjuration:-

Венера: Vouchsafe to be present, O Father of All, and thou Thrice Mighty Hermes, Conductor of the dead. Asclepius son of Hephaistus, Patron of the Healing Art; and thou Osiris, Lord of strenght a vigor, do thou thyself be present too. Arnebascenis, Patron of Philosophy, and yet again Asclepius, son of Imuthe, who presidest over poetry. * * * * "Apollonius, Apollonius, Apollonius, Thou teachest the Magic of Zoroaster, son of Oromasdes; and this is the worship of the Gods." For the evocation of spirits belonging to religions issued from Judaism, the following kabalistic invocation of Solomon should be used, either in Hebrew, or in any other tongue with which the spirit in question is known to have been familiar:- "Powers of the Kingdom, be ye under my left foot and in my right hand! Glory and eternity, take me by the two shoulders, and direct me in the paths of victory! Mercy and Justice, be ye the equilibrium and splendor of my life! Intelligence and Wisdom, crown me! Spirits of Malchuth, lead me betwixt the two pillars upon which rests the whole edifice of the temple! Angels of Netsah and Hod, strengthen me upon the cubic stone of Jesod! O Gedulael! O Geburael! O Tiphereth! Binael, be thou my love! Ruach Hochmael, be thou my light! Be that which thou are and thou shall be, O Ketheriel! Tschim, assist me in the name of Saddai! Cherubim, be my strength in the name of Adonai! Beni-Elohim, be my brethren in the name of the Son, and by the power of Zebaoth! Eloim, do battle for me in the name of Tetragrammation! Malachim, protect me in the name of Jod He Vau He! Seraphim, cleanse my love in the name of Elvoh! Hasmalim, enlighten me with the splendors of Eloi and Shechinah! Aralim, act! Orphanim, revolve and shine! Hajoth a Kadosh, cry, speak, roar, bellow! Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh, Saddai, Adonia, Jotchavah, Eieazereie: Hallelu-jah, Hallelu-jah, Hallelu-jah. Amen. It should be remembered above all, in conjurations, that the names of Satan, Beelzebub, Adramelek, and others do not designate spiritual unities, but legions of impure spirits. "Our name is legion, and we are many" says the spirit of darkness in the Gospel. Number constitutes the law, and progress takes place inversely in Hell - that is to say, the most advanced in Satanic development, and consequently the most degraded, are the least intelligent and feeblest. Thus, a fatal law drives the demons downward when they wish and believe themselves to be ascending. So also those who term themselves chiefs are the most impotent and despised of all. As to the horde of perverse spirits, they tremble before the unknown, invisible, incomprehensible, capricious, implacable chief, who never explains his law, whose arm is ever stretched out to strike those who fail to understand him. They give this phantom the names of Baal, Jupiter, and even others more venerable, which cannot, without profanation, be pronounced in Hell. But this phantom is only a shadow and remnant of God, disfigured by their willful perversity, and persisting in their imagination like a vengeance of justice and a remorse of truth. "When the evoked spirit of light manifests with dejected or irritated countenance, we must offer him a moral sacrifice, that is, be inwardly disposed to renounce whatever offends him; and before leaving the oratory, we must dismiss him, saying: "May peace be with thee! I have not wished to trouble thee; do thou torment me not. I shall labor to improve myself as to anything that vexes thee. I pray, and will still pray, with thee and for thee. Pray thou also both with and for me, and return to thy great slumber, expecting that day when we shall wake together. Silence and adieu." Christian, in his "Historie de le Magic" (Paris, 1871) says: "The place chosen for the evocation is not an unimportant point. The most auspicious is undoubtedly that room which contains the last traces of the lamented person. If it be impossible to fulfill this condition, we must go in search of some isolated and rural retreat which corresponds in orientation and aspect, as well as measurement, with the mortuary chamber. 847 "The window must be blocked with boards if olive wood, hermetically joined, so that no exterior light may penetrate. The ceiling, the four interior walls, and the floor must be draped with tapestry of emerald green silk, which the operator must secure himself with copper nails, invoking no assistance from strange hands, because, from this moment, he alone may enter into this spot set apart from all, the arcane Oratory of the Magus. The furniture which belonged to the deceased, his favorite possessions and trinkets, the things on which his final glance may be supposed to have rested - all these things must be assiduously collected and arranged in the order which they occupied at the time of his death. If none of these souvenirs can be obtained, a faithful likeness of the departed being must be procured, it must be depicted in the dress and colors which he wore during the last period of his life. This portrait must be set up on the eastern wall by means of copper fasteners, must be covered with a veil of white silk, and must be surmounted with a crown of those flowers which were most lived by the deceased. "Before the portrait there must be erected an alter of white marble, supported by four columns which must terminate in bull`s feet. A five pointed star must be emblazoned on the slab of the alter, and must be composed of pure copper plates. The place in the centre of the star, between the plates, must be large enough to receive the pedestal of a cup-shaped copper chafing-dish, containing dessicated fragments of laurel wood and alder. By the side of the chafing-dish must be placed a censer full of incense. The skin of a white and spotless ram must be stretched beneath the alter, and on it emblazoned another pentagram prawn with parallel lines of azure blue, golden yellow, emerald green and purple red. " A copper tripod must be erected in the middle of the Oratory; it must be perfectly triangular in form, it must be surmounted by another and similar chafing-dish, which must likewise contain a quantity of dried olive wood. " A high candelabrum of copper must be placed by the wall on the southern side, and must contain a single taper of purest white wax, which must alone illuminate the mystery of the evocation. "The white color of the alter, of the ram`s skin, and of the veil, in consecrated to Gabriel, the planetary archangel of he moon, and the Genius of mysteries; the green of the copper and tapestries is dedicated to the Genius of Venus. "The alter and tripod must both be encompassed by a magnetized iron chain, and by three garlands composed of the foliage and blossoms of the myrtle, the olive, and the rose. "Finally, facing the portrait, and on the eastern side there must be a canopy, also draped with emerald silk, and supported by two triangular columns of olive wood, plated with purest copper. On the north and south sides, between the each of these columns and the wall, the tapestry must fall in long folds to the ground, forming a kind of tabernacle; which must be open on the eastern side. At the foot of each column there must be a sphinx of white marble, with a cavity in the top of the head to receive spices for burning. It is beneath this canopy that the apparitions will manifest, and it should be remembered the the Magus must turn to the east for prayer, and to the west for evocation. "Before entering this little sanctuary, devoted to remembrance, the operator must be clothed in a vestment of azure, fastened by clasps of copper, enriched with a single emerald. He must wear upon his head a tiara surrounded by a floriated circle of twelve emeralds, and a crown of violets. On his breast must be the talisman of Venus depending from a ribbon of azure silk. On the annular finger of his left hand must be a copper ring containing turquoise. His feet must be covered with shoes of azure silk, and he must be provided with a fan of swan`s feathers to dissipate, if needful, the smoke of the perfumes. "The Oratory and all its objects must be consecrated on a Friday, during the hours which are set apart to the Genius of Venus. This consecration is performed by burning violets and roses in a fire if olive wood. A shaft must be provided in the oratory for the passage of the smoke, but care must be taken to prevent the admission of light through this channel. "When the preparations are finished, the operator must impose on himself a retreat of one-and-twenty days, beginning on the anniversary of the death of the beloved being. During this period he must refrain from conferring on anyone the least of those marks of affection which he was accustomed to bestow on the departed; he must be absolutely chaste, alike in deed and thought; he must take daily but one repast, consisting of bread, wine, roots, and fruits. These three conditions are indispensable to success in evocation, and their accomplishment requires complete isolation. "Every day, shortly before midnight, the Magus must assume his consecrated dress. On the stroke of the mystic hour, he must enter the Oratory, bearing a lighted candle in his right hand, and in the other an hour-glass. The candle must be fixed in the candelabra, and the hour-glass on the alter to register the flight of time. The operator must then proceed to replenish the garland and the floral crown. Then he shall unveil the portrait, and erect it immovable in front of the alter, being thus with his face to the east, he shall softly go over in his mind the cherished recollections he possesses of the beloved and departed being. "When the upper reservoir of the hour-glass is empty the time of contemplation will be over. By the flame of the taper the operator must then kindle the laurel wood and alder in the chafing-dish which stands on the alter; then, taking a pinch of incense from the censer, let him cast it thrice upon the fire, repeating the following words:- ~Glory be to the Father of life universal in the splendor of the infinite altitude, and peace in the twilight of the immeasurable depths to all spirits of good will !" "Then he shall cover the portrait, and taking up his candle in his hand, shall depart from the Oratory, walking backward at a slow pace as far as the threshold. The same ceremony must be fulfilled at the same hour during every day of the retreat, and at each visits the crown which is above the portrait, and the garlands of the alter and tripod must be burnt each evening in a room adjoining the Oratory. "When the twenty-first day has arrived, the Magus must do his best to have no communication with any one, but if this be impossible, he must not be the first to speak, and must postpone all business till the morrow. On the stroke of noon, he must arrange a small circular table in the Oratory, and cover it with a new napkin of unblemished whiteness. It must be garnished with two copper chalices, an entire loaf, and a crystal flagon of the purest white. The bread must be broken and not cut, and the wine emptied in equal portions into the two cups. Half of this mystic communion, which must be his sole nourishment on this supreme day, shall be offered by the operator to the dead, and by the light of the one taper he must eat his own share, standing before the veiled portrait. Then he shall retire as before, walking backward as far as the threshold, and leaving the ghost`s share of bread and wine upon the table. "When the solemn hour of the evening has at length arrived the Magus shall carry into the Oratory some well-dried cypress wood, which he shall set alight in the alter and the tripod. Three pinches of incense 849

Венера: shall be cast into the flame in honor of the Supreme Potency which manifests itself by Ever Active Intelligence and by Absolute Wisdom. When the wood of the two chafing-dishes has been reduced to embers, he must renew the triple offering of incense on the alter, and must cast some seven times on the fire in the tripod; at each evaporation of the consecrated perfume he must repeat the previous doxology, and then turning tot he East, he must call upon God by prayer of that religion which was professed by the person whom he desires to evoke. "When the prayers are over he must reverse his position and with his face to the West, must enkindle the chafing-dishes on the head of each sphinx, and when the cypress is full ablaze he must heap over it well dried violets and roses. Then let him extinguish the candle which illuminates the Oratory, and falling on his knees before the canopy, between the two columns, let him mentally address the beloved person with a plenitude of faith and affection. Let him solemnly entreat it to appear and renew this interior adjuration seven times, under the auspices of the seven providential Genii, and endeavouring during the whole of the time to exalt his soul above the natural weakness of humanity. "Finally, the operator, with closed eyes, and hands covering his face, must call the invoked person in a loud but gentle voice, pronouncing three times all of the names which he bore. "Some moments after the third appeal, he must extend his arms in the form of a cross, and lifting up his eyes, he will behold the beloved being, in a recognizable manner, in front of him. That is to say, he will perceive that ethereal substance separated from the perishable terrestrial body, the fluidic envelope of the soul, which Kabalistic initiates have termed the `Perispirit'. This substance preserves the human form but is emancipated from human infirmities, and is energized by the special characteristics whereby the imperishable individuality of our essence is manifested. "The departed soul will give counsel to the operator; it will occasionally reveal secrets which may be beneficial to those whom it loved on earth, but it will answer no question which has reference to the desires of the flesh; it will discover no buried treasures, nor will it unveil the secrets of a third person; it is silent on the mysteries of the superior existence to which it has now attained. In certain cases, it will, however, declare itself either happy or in punishment. If it be the latter, it will ask for the prayer of the Magus, or for some religious observance, which we must unfailingly fulfill. Lastly, it will indicate the time when the evocation may be renewed. "When it has disappeared, the operator must turn to the East, rekindle the fire on the alter, and make a final offering of incense. Then he must detach the crown and the garlands, take up his candle, and retire with his face to the West till he is out of the Oratory. His last duty is to burn the final remains of the flowers and leaves. Their ashes, united to those which have been collected during the time of retreat, must be mixed with myrtle seeds, and secretly buried in a field at a depth which will secure it from disturbance of the ploughshare." 850 The last two examples are, of course, those of "white" necromancy. The procedure followed by savage tribes as of course totally different. Among certain Australian tribes the necromants are called Birraark. It is said that a Birraark was supposed to be initiated by the "mrarts" (ghosts) when they met him wandering in the bush. It was from the ghosts that he obtained replies to questions concerning events passing t a distance, or yet to happen, which might be of interest or moment to his tribe. An account of a spiritual seance in the bush is given in "Kamilaroi and Kurnai" (p. 251): The fires were let down; the Birraark uttered the cry "Coo-ee" at intervals. At length a distant reply was heard, and shortly afterwards, the sound as of persons jumping on the ground in succession. A voice was then heard in the gloom asking in a strange intonation "What is wanted?" At the termination of the seance, the spirit voice said "We are going." Finally, the Birraark was found in the top of an almost inaccessible tree, apparently asleep. In Japan, ghosts can be raised in various ways. One mode is to "put into an andon" (a paper lantern in a flame), "a hundred rushlights, and repeat an incantation of a hundred lines. One of these rushlights is taken out at the end of each line, and the would-be ghost-seer then goes out in the dark with one light still burning, and blows it out, when their ghost ought to appear. Girls who have lost their lovers by death often try that sorcery." The mode of procedure as practiced in Scotland was thus. The haunted room was made ready. He , "who was to do the daring deed, about nightfall entered the room, bearing with him a table, a chair, a candle, a compass, a crucifix, if one could be got, and a Bible. With the compass he cat a circle on the middle of the floor, large enough to hold the chair and the table. He placed within the circle the chair and the table, and on the table he laid the Bible and the crucifix beside the lighted candle. If he had not a crucifix, then he drew the figure of a cross in the floor within the circle. When all this was done, he rested himself on the chair, opened the Bible, and waited for the coming of the spirit. Exactly at midnight the spirit came. Sometimes the door opened slowly, and there glided in noiselessly a lady sheeted in white, with a face of woe and told her story to the man on his asking her in the name of God what she wanted. What she wanted was done in the morning, and the spirit rested ever after. Sometimes the spirit rose from the floor, and sometimes came forth from the wall. There was one who burst into the room with a strong bound, danced wildly round the circle, and flourished a long whip round the man's head, but never dared to step into the circle. During a pause in his frantic dance he was asked, in God`s name, what he wanted. He ceased his dance and told his wishes. His wishes were carried out, and the spirit was in peace." In Wraxall`s "Memoirs of the Counts of Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw, and Vienna" there is an amusing account of the raising of the ghost of Chevalier de Saxe. Reports had been circulated that at his palace at Dresden there was secreted a large sum of money, and it was urged that if his spirit could be compelled to appear, interesting secrets could be extorted from him. Curiosity, combined with avarice, accordingly prompted his principal heir, Prince Charles, to try the experiment, and, on the appointed night, Schrepfer was the operator in raising the apparition. He commenced his proceedings by retiring into the corner of the gallery, where kneeling down with many mysterious ceremonies, he invoked the spirit to appear. At length, a loud clatter was heard at all the windows on the outside, resembling more the effect produced by a number of wet fingers drawn over the edge of glasses than anything else to which it could well be compared. The sound announced the arrival of the good spirits, and was shortly followed by a yell of a frightful and unusual nature. Schrepfer continued his invocations, when "the door suddenly opened with violence and something resembling a black ball or globe rolled into the room. It was enveloped in smoke or cloud, in the midst of which appeared a human face, like the countenance of the Chevalier de Saxe, from which issued a loud and angry voice, exclaiming in German,"Carl, was wollte du mit mich?" - "Charles, what would thou do with me?" By reiterated exorcisms Schrepfer finally dismissed the apparition, and the terrified spectators dispersed fully convinced of his magical powers

Венера: Facets of the Modern Necromancer Though it is often cited, and truthfully, that the actual teachings of the art of necromancy have been lost in the pool of time there are many things we can still discern about the practitioners of this art, their lifestyles, and the general impression their conduct left for the public eye. The ancient Greeks were prolific writers as attested to by the enormous volume of philosophical and literary works that have survived from that culture which are now considered classics. Many of these writers identified trends in Greek necromancers as it would appear from the outside. Moreover, the Greeks were hardly the only necromancers that existed. Necromancy has spontaneously developed in cultures across the globe, from rites built into African and Asian magics to European divinations and the art of the gypsies as well as many of the ancestral rites of the native Americans. Throughout time there have been a few constants which help define who the necromancer is, what they do, and what their position in the world in general tends to be. These, of course, are stereotypes but this does not instantly make them untrue. Indeed, many stereotypes that we hear of in legend and lore are based very much in fact. However uneducated it may sometimes be to conjecture through stereotypes, it would be foolish to ignore the commonalities associated to necromancers which have managed to span through time and across cultures. Surely there is something to be said for trends which are so persistent. Among the first things seen as common to necromancers, as a general rule, is a fascination with the nature of the soul. This is a necessity, in many senses, even if only because the term 'necromancy' loses any meaning it may have otherwise held if it can be applied to things which are obviously not related to the soul in any fashion. Even if the definition of necromancy can be reasonably broad the practice itself still must essentially focus on the condition of the soul, for whatever reason, to retain the title of "necromancy". The necromancer stereotype is that of a person who acknowledges and embraces the dark side of spirituality and understands the innermost mechanics of manipulating the soul. However, this has earned the necromancer a reputation for morbidity as well. Whether this is necessarily true or not is still an issue of great debate but it would seem more likely that necromancers are typically not morbid, per se, so much as enthraled by the power of their own art and possibly even perpetually surprised by the subtle power that necromancy offers. It is noteworthy to mention that the soul, for all its facets, has been a central body of study by many great figures throughout religious and philosophical history and that a preoccupation with the study of the nature of the soul should not be necessarily taken as an indication of superstitious, narrow-minded, or morbid brooding on behalf of a disciple of the netherworld. Another of the commonalities between practitioners -- and the most notable one -- is the necromantic "mind frame" that seems to possess each practitioner. Regardless of how one might start, each necromancer who continues to delve into the deep mysteries of death seems to necessarily develop a very cold, rigid, calculating method of thought. Unlike the frivolity often associated with many of the feel-good spiritualist mystic groups or the flightiness of other classes of diviner or pagan occultist, the necromancer has earned a reputation for slow and meticulous precision. Even the vainglorious transcendentalist image portrayed by the religious magical systems pales in comparison to the utterly binding and mechanical framework that often appears to possess a necromancer's personality. Even considering the treatment necromancy had at the hands of the Romans, it was often associated with detached, alien, and utterly foreign understanding of the world coupled tightly with sensibility and eccentricity in equal measure. Even the most stalwart of organised religious magics, orders, and self-proclaimed adepts have traditionally shunned the practice of necromancy for lack of understanding (with the notable exception of Waite, though it is debatable that he was performing anything more than overly dramatic mediumism with a liberal dash of fairy tale telling). The terror that incarnates as the diligent necromantic disciple makes many of the practitioner's would-be competitors seem no more substantial than illusory smoke and mirrors; when juxtaposed with the truly icy mind of a seasoned necromancer, many difficulties appear to melt away as negligible trivialities. This frigid and stoic persona has developed as a result of the realization that utilising necromantic power brings the caster one step closer to death with every hex and curse. In much the same way as many cigarette smokers have reflections on eternity and the afterlife as a result of knowing that they are inhaling carcinogenic death, many necromancers likewise have developed a certain acknowledgement and respect for the powers of decay and conscientiously choose when to use them so as to avoid being consumed entirely before their natural life is over. Продолжение помоему бесконечно , так что если это представляет интерес какой-то выложу до конца .

ArcheDeviL: кинь мне весь текст в лс, прошу тебя , очень интересно особенно попрактиковать мой английский который я изучал 4 года )))

ArcheDeviL: ну в принцыпе текст довольнатаки легкий - только переписывать его влом )))),но если очень нужно то постораюсь

ArcheDeviL: вроде и ритуалы тут написаны

Венера: ArcheDeviL выложу тут а то вдруг кому еще понадобится , а его по личкам долго всем отправлять , если переведеш , даш почитать ?

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